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Journal of Robotics
Volume 2018, Article ID 5951965, 15 pages
Research Article

Development and Evaluation of a Powered Artificial Gastrocnemius for Transtibial Amputee Gait

Biomechatronics Group, MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Hugh Herr; ude.tim.aidem@rrehh

Received 15 April 2017; Revised 30 August 2017; Accepted 25 October 2017; Published 22 January 2018

Academic Editor: Kazuo Kiguchi

Copyright © 2018 Michael F. Eilenberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Existing robotic transtibial prostheses provide only ankle joint actuation and do not restore biarticular function of the gastrocnemius muscle. This paper presents the first powered biarticular transtibial prosthesis, which is a combination of a commercial powered ankle-foot prosthesis and a motorized robotic knee orthosis. The orthosis is controlled to emulate the human gastrocnemius based on neuromuscular models of matched nonamputees. Together with the ankle-foot prosthesis, the devices provide biarticular actuation. We evaluate differences between this biarticular condition and a monoarticular condition with the orthosis behaving as a free-joint. Six participants with transtibial amputation walk with the prosthesis on a treadmill while motion, force, and metabolic data are collected and analyzed for differences between conditions. The biarticular prosthesis reduces affected-side biological knee flexion moment impulse and hip positive work during late-stance knee flexion, compared to the monoarticular condition. The data do not support our hypothesis that metabolism decreases for all participants, but some participants demonstrate large metabolic reductions with the biarticular condition. These preliminary results suggest that a powered artificial gastrocnemius may be capable of providing large metabolic reductions compared to a monoarticular prosthesis, but further study is warranted to determine an appropriate controller for achieving more consistent metabolic benefits.