Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 413238, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/413238
Review Article

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Wounds: Pain Relief or Excessive Scar Formation?

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yee-Zen General Hospital, Tao-Yuan county 326, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, National Central University, Jhongli city, Tao-Yuan county 320, Taiwan
3Institute of Statistics, National Central University, Jhongli city, Tao-Yuan county 320, Taiwan
4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan
5Department of Life Science, National Central University, Jhongli city, Tao-Yuan county 320, Taiwan
6Department of Medicine, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
7Department of Nursing, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
8Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, and National Yang-Ming University Hospital, Ilan 260, Taiwan

Received 3 May 2010; Accepted 2 June 2010

Academic Editor: Philip W. Wertz

Copyright © 2010 Wen-Hsiang Su et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. C. Sandulache, A. Parekh, H. Li-Korotky, J. E. Dohar, and P. A. Hebda, “Prostaglandin E2 inhibition of keloid fibroblast migration, contraction, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced collagen synthesis,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Sehgal and V. L. Kumar, “Calotropis procera latex-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia—effect of antiinflammatory drugs,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2005, no. 4, pp. 216–220, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Y. Park, M. H. Pillinger, and S. B. Abramson, “Prostaglandin E2 synthesis and secretion: the role of PGE2 synthases,” Clinical Immunology, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 229–240, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. J. Mengle-Gaw and B. D. Schwartz, “Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: promise or peril?” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 275–286, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. G. Reish and E. Eriksson, “Scar treatments: preclinical and clinical studies,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 206, no. 4, pp. 719–730, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Aarabi, M. T. Longaker, and G. C. Gurtner, “Hypertrophic scar formation following burns and trauma: new approaches to treatment.,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 4, no. 9, article e234, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. D. Butler, M. T. Longaker, and G. P. Yang, “Current progress in keloid research and treatment,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 206, no. 4, pp. 731–741, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Henry and W. L. Garner, “Inflammatory mediators in wound healing,” Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 483–507, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. G. Reish and E. Eriksson, “Scars: a review of emerging and currently available therapies,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 1068–1078, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. S. Atiyeh, M. Costagliola, and S. N. Hayek, “Keloid or hypertrophic scar: the controversy: review of the literature,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 676–680, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. B. Ting, J. Caddy, N. Hislop et al., “A homolog of Drosophila grainy head is essential for epidermal integrity in mice,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5720, pp. 411–413, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. D. Burrington, “Wound healing in the fetal lamb,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 523–528, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. E. Slemp and R. E. Kirschner, “Keloids and scars: a review of keloids and scars, their pathogenesis, risk factors, and management,” Current Opinion in Pediatrics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 396–402, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. D. Winter, “Some factors affecting skin and wound healing,” Journal of Tissue Viability, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 20–23, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. J. Faler, R. A. Macsata, D. Plummer, L. Mishra, and A. N. Sidawy, “Transforming growth factor-beta and wound healing,” Perspectives in Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 55–62, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C.-L. Chen, S. H. Shuan, and S. H. Jung, “Cellular heparan sulfate negatively modulates transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) responsiveness in epithelial cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 17, pp. 11506–11514, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Shimizu, K.-I. Kanai, Y. Kyo, K. Asano, T. Hisamitsu, and H. Suzaki, “Effect of tranilast on matrix metalloproteinase production from neutrophils in-vitro,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 91–99, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y.-C. Hsu, M. Hsiao, Y. W. Chien, and W.-R. Lee, “Exogenous nitric oxide stimulated collagen type I expression and TGF-β1 production in keloid fibroblasts by a cGMP-dependent manner,” Nitric Oxide, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–265, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Xia, T.-T. Phan, I. J. Lim, M. T. Longaker, and G. P. Yang, “Differential transcriptional responses of keloid and normal keratinocytes to serum stimulation,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 156–163, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Sato, “Upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway induced by transforming growth factor-β in hypertrophic scars and keloids,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 300–307, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. B. Campaner, L. M. Ferreira, A. Gragnani, J. M. Bruder, J. L. Cusick, and J. R. Morgan, “Upregulation of TGF-β1 expression may be necessary but is not sufficient for excessive scarring,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 1168–1176, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Suzawa, S. Kikuchi, N. Arai, and A. Koda, “The mechanism involved in the inhibitory action of tranilast on collagen biosynthesis of keloid fibroblasts,” Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. Moulin, S. Larochelle, C. Langlois, I. Thibault, C. A. Lopez-Vallé, and M. Roy, “Normal skin wound and hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts have differential responses to apoptotic inductors,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 198, no. 3, pp. 350–358, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. C. Chipev and M. Simon, “Phenotypic differences between dermal fibroblasts from different body sites determine their responses to tension and TGFbeta1,” BMC Dermatology, vol. 2, no. 1, article 13, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Shin and K. W. Minn, “The effect of myofibroblast on contracture of hypertrophic scar,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 633–640, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. W. Spiekstra, M. Breetveld, T. Rustemeyer, R. J. Scheper, and S. Gibbs, “Wound-healing factors secreted by epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in skin substitutes,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 708–717, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Jagadeesan and A. Bayat, “Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and keloid disease,” International Journal of Surgery, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 278–285, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y.-R. Kuo, W.-S. Wu, and F.-S. Wang, “Flashlamp pulsed-dye laser suppressed TGF-β1 expression and proliferation in cultured keloid fibroblasts is mediated by MAPK pathway,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 358–364, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L.-J. Zhou, M. Inoue, H. Gunji, I. Ono, and F. Kaneko, “Effects of prostaglandin E1 on cultured dermal fibroblasts from normal and hypertrophic scarred skin,” Journal of Dermatological Science, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 217–224, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. S. Huang, Q. Liu, F. E. Johnson, Y. Konish, and J. S. Huang, “Transforming growth factor peptide antagonists and their conversion to partial agonists,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 43, pp. 27155–97159, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Vuolteenaho, A. Koskinen, M. Kukkonen et al., “Leptin enhances synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritic cartilage-mediator role of NO in leptin-induced PGE 2, IL-6, and IL-8 production,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2009, Article ID 345838, 10 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Sasaki, M. Kashima, T. Ito et al., “Differential regulation of metalloproteinase production, proliferation and chemotaxis of human lung fibroblasts by PDGF, interleukin-1β and TNF-α,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 155–160, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. V. Sampey, P. Hutchinson, and E. F. Morand, “Annexin I and dexamethasone effects on phospholipase and cyclooxygenase activity in human synoviocytes,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 125–132, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. R. Homaidan, L. Zhao, I. Chakroun, C. A. Martin, and R. Burakoff, “The mechanisms of action of interleukin-1 on rabbit intestinal epithelial cells,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 8, no. 4-5, pp. 189–197, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F.-L. Yeh, H.-D. Shen, M.-W. Lin, C.-Y. Chang, H.-Y. Tai, and M.-H. Huang, “Keloid-derived fibroblasts have a diminished capacity to produce prostaglandin E2,” Burns, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 299–304, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Hayashi, J. Nishihira, Y. Koyama, S. Sasaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Decreased prostaglandin E2 production by inflammatory cytokine and lower expression of EP2 receptor result in increased collagen synthesis in keloid fibroblasts,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 990–997, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Shah, D. M. Foreman, and M. W. J. Ferguson, “Control of scarring in adult wounds by neutralising antibody to transforming growth factor β,” The Lancet, vol. 339, no. 8787, pp. 213–214, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. Renò, P. Grazianetti, and M. Cannas, “Effects of mechanical compression on hypertrophic scars: prostaglandin E2 release,” Burns, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 215–218, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. Li, Q. Huang, J. Chen et al., “Apoptotic cells activate the “phoenix rising” pathway to promote wound healing and tissue regeneration,” Science signaling, vol. 3, no. 110: ra13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L.-J. Zhou, M. Inoue, I. Ono, and F. Kaneko, “The mode of action of prostaglandin (PG) I1 analog, SM-10906, on fibroblasts of hypertrophic scars is similar to PGE1 in its potential role of preventing scar formation,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 314–320, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. Suzawa, S. Kikuchi, K. Ichikawa, and A. Koda, “Inhibitory action of tranilast, an anti-allergic drug, on the release of cytokines and PGE2 from human monocytes-macrophages,” Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 85–90, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Darmani, J. Crossan, S. D. McLellan, D. Meek, and A. Curtis, “Expression of nitric oxide synthase and transforming growth factor-beta in crush-injured tendon and synovium,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 13, no. 5-6, pp. 299–305, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. V. L. Kumar and Y. M. Shivkar, “Involvement of prostaglandins in inflammation induced by latex of Calotropis procera,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 151–155, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. P. M. van Dijk, Z. J. Keuskamp, J. H. P. Wilson, and F. J. Zijlstra, “Sequential release of cytokines, lipid mediators and nitric oxide in experimental colitis,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 186–190, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. X.-J. Wang, G. Han, P. Owens, Y. Siddiqui, and A. G. Li, “Role of TGFβ-mediated inflammation in cutaneous wound healing,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 112–117, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Aarabi, K. A. Bhatt, Y. Shi et al., “Mechanical load initiates hypertrophic scar formation through decreased cellular apoptosis,” FASEB Journal, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3250–3261, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. S. Huang, Y. H. Wang, T. Y. Ling, S. S. Chuang, F. E. Johnson, and S. S. Huang, “Synthetic TGF-beta antagonist accelerates wound healing and reduces scarring,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1269–1270, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. D. Moore and F. M. Cunningham, “Mediators of increased blood flow in porcine skin,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 55–59, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. A. J. Singer, S. S. Huang, J. S. Huang et al., “A novel TGF-beta antagonist speeds reepithelialization and reduces scarring of partial thickness porcine burns,” Journal of Burn Care and Research, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 329–334, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. L. Cooper, A. V. Turnbull, S. J. Hopkins, and N. J. Rothwell, “Dietary n-3 fatty acids inhibit fever induced by inflammation in the rat,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 353–357, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. Ogawa, “The most current algorithms for the treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 557–568, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. Aggarwal, A. Saxena, P. S. Lubana, R. K. Mathur, and D. K. Jain, “Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars using bleom,” Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J.-A.M. Atkinson, K. T. McKenna, A. G. Barnett, D. J. McGrath, and M. Rudd, “A randomized, controlled trial to determine the efficacy of paper tape in preventing hypertrophic sear formation in surgical incisions that traverse Langer's skin tension lines,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 1648–1656, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Anzarut, J. Olson, P. Singh, B. H. Rowe, and E. E. Tredget, “The effectiveness of pressure garment therapy for the prevention of abnormal scarring after burn injury: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 77–84, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. O'Brien and A. Pandit, “Silicon gel sheeting for preventing and treating hypertrophic and keloid scars,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD003826, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Y. Lim, A. D. Phung, A. M. Corbacho et al., “Modulation of cutaneous wound healing by ozone: differences between young and aged mice,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 127–134, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. Valacchi, V. Fortino, and V. Bocci, “The dual action of ozone on the skin,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 153, no. 6, pp. 1096–1100, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. D. Widgerow, L. A. Chait, P. J. Stals, R. Stals, and G. Candy, “Multimodality scar management program,” Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 533–543, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. Lau, R. Paus, S. Tiede, P. Day, and A. Bayat, “Exploring the role of stem cells in cutaneous wound healing,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 921–933, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L. Braiman-Wiksman, I. Solomonik, R. Spira, and T. Tennenbaum, “Novel insights into wound healing sequence of events,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 767–779, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. H.-O. Ku, S.-H. Jeong, H.-G. Kang et al., “Gene expression profiles and pathways in skin inflammation induced by three different sensitizers and an irritant,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 190, no. 2, pp. 231–237, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Ansaloni, R. Brundisini, G. Morino, and A. Kiura, “Prospective, randomized, comparative study of Misgav Ladach versus traditional cesarean section at Nazareth Hospital, Kenya,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1164–1172, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. Darj and M.-L. Nordström, “The Misgav Ladach method for cesarean section compared to the Pfannenstiel method,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 37–41, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus