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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 536478, 9 pages
Review Article

Modulation of Toll-Like Receptor Activity by Leukocyte Ig-Like Receptors and Their Effects during Bacterial Infection

1Centre for Infection, St George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK
2Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, KT15 3NB, UK

Received 23 February 2010; Accepted 30 March 2010

Academic Editor: Philipp Lepper

Copyright © 2010 Louise E. Pilsbury et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a potent trigger for inflammatory immune responses. Without tight regulation their activation could lead to pathology, so it is imperative to extend our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that govern TLR expression and function. One family of immunoregulatory proteins which can provide a balancing effect on TLR activity are the Leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LILRs), which act as innate immune receptors for self-proteins. Here we describe the LILR family, their inhibitory effect on TLR activity in cells of the monocytic lineage, their signalling pathway, and their antimicrobial effects during bacterial infection. Agents have already been identified which enhances or inhibits LILR activity raising the future possibility that modulation of LILR function could be used as a means to modulate TLR activity.