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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 684274, 6 pages
Review Article

Lipopolysaccharides: From Erinyes to Charites

Department of Health Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro, Via T. Campanella, 115, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy

Received 15 November 2011; Accepted 26 February 2012

Academic Editor: Amal O. Amer

Copyright © 2012 Alfredo Focà et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Following the discovery of endotoxins by Richard Pfeiffer, such bacterial product was associated to many severe disorders produced by an overwhelming inflammatory response and often resulting in endotoxic shock and multiple organ failure. However, recent clinical and basic sciences investigations claimed some beneficial roles of typical as well as atypical endotoxins. The aim of this paper is to focus on recent data supporting a beneficial activity of both typical and atypical endotoxins. Such novel perspective looks promising for development of new drugs for prevention and therapy of several human diseases.