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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 124614, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/124614
Review Article

TLR2 and TLR4 in the Brain Injury Caused by Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

1Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650031, China
2Department of Neurosurgery, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China

Received 8 April 2013; Revised 30 May 2013; Accepted 11 June 2013

Academic Editor: Andrew Maclean

Copyright © 2013 Ying Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Brain injury caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is a complicated pathophysiological course, in which inflammation is thought to play an important role. Toll-like receptors are a type of transmembrane proteins, which can recognize either exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns or endogenous stress or damage-associated molecular patterns in the innate immune system and initiate inflammatory responses. Among Toll-like receptors, TLR2 and TLR4 are found to be more important than others in the pathological progression of cerebral injury due to ischemia and reperfusion. This review will focus on the biological characteristics and functions of TLR2 and TLR4 and their downstream signal pathways.