Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 274726, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/274726
Clinical Study

Plasma Levels of IL-17, VEGF, and Adrenomedullin and S-Cone Dysfunction of the Retina in Children and Adolescents without Signs of Retinopathy and with Varied Duration of Diabetes

1Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology, Diabetology with Cardiology Division, Medical University of Białystok, Ulica Waszyngtona 17, 15-274 Białystok, Poland
2Department of Pediatrics Ophthalmology with Strabismus Treatment Unit, Medical University of Białystok, Ulica Waszyngtona 17, 15-274 Białystok, Poland
3Scientific Circle at the Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology with Strabismus Treatment Unit, Medical University of Białystok, Ulica Waszyngtona 17, 15-274 Białystok, Poland
4Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Białystok, Ulica Waszyngtona 15A, 15-269 Białystok, Poland

Received 12 July 2013; Revised 6 October 2013; Accepted 12 October 2013

Academic Editor: Katarzyna Zorena

Copyright © 2013 Kornel Semeran et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. King, R. E. Aubert, and W. H. Herman, “Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1414–1431, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. Mirkiewicz-Sieradzka, “Progress in diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia Praktyczna, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  3. “Cukrzyca ukryta pandemia—sytuacja w Polsce,” Tech. Rep., Novo Nordisk, Warsaw, Poland, 2011.
  4. E. Spoz, W. Lubiński, and D. Karczewicz, “The pattern electroretinogram test in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 with normal fundus,” Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis, vol. 53, supplement 1, pp. 35–42, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. J. Barber, “A new view of diabetic retinopathy: a neurodegenerative disease of the eye,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 283–290, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. McFarlane, T. Wright, D. Stephens, J. Nilsson, and C. A. Westall, “Blue flash ERG PhNR changes associated with poor long-term glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 741–748, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Sakai, Y. Tani, E. Shirasawa, Y. Shirao, and K. Kawasaki, “Development of electroretinographic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats,” Ophthalmic Research, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. Liu and Y. Deng, “The analysis of electroretinography of diabetes mellitus,” Yan Ke Xue Bao, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 173–179, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Vadalà, M. Anastasi, G. Lodato, and S. Cillino, “Electroretinographic oscillatory potentials in insulin-dependent diabetes patients: a long-term follow-up,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 305–309, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. L. Daley, R. C. Watzke, and M. C. Riddle, “Early loss of blue-sensitive color vision in patients with type I diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 777–781, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. E. Moss, M. D. Davis, and D. L. DeMets, “The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. IV. Diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 1464–1474, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Mirkiewicz-Sieradzka, H. Zygulska-Machowa, and B. Romanowska, “Evaluation of macular function in patients with diabetic retinopathy,” Klinika Oczna, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 209–211, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. O. Palacz, W. Lubioski, and K. Penkala, Electrophysiological Diagnosis of the Visual System, Oftal, Warsaw, Poland, 1st edition, 2003.
  14. E. Langwińska-Wośko, “Effect of diabetes type I duration on changes of oscillatory potentials in ERG of children and youth,” Klinika Oczna, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 230–232, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Bossowski, M. Moniuszko, E. Idzkowska et al., “Evaluation of CD4+CD161+CD196+ and CD4+IL-17+ Th17 cells intheperipheral blood of young patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease,” Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetesand Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 89–95, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Numasaki, J.-I. Fukushi, M. Ono et al., “Interleukin-17 promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth,” Blood, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 2620–2627, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Danne, O. Kordonouri, I. Enders, G. Hövener, and B. Weber, “Factors modifying the effect of hyperglycemia on the development of retinopathy in adolescents with diabetes. Results of the Berlin Retinopathy Study,” Hormone Research, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. “Fundus photographic risk factors for progression of diabetic retinopathy. ETDRS report number 12: early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group,” Ophthalmology, vol. 98, supplement 5, pp. 823–833, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. D. R. Matthews, I. M. Stratton, S. J. Aldington, R. R. Holman, and E. M. Kohner, “Risks of progression of retinopathy and vision loss related to tight blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: UKPDS 69,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 122, no. 11, pp. 1631–1640, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. Younis, D. M. Broadbent, S. P. Harding, and J. P. Vora, “Prevalence of diabetic eye disease in patients entering a systematic primary care-based eye screening programme,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1014–1021, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. E. Mortlock, Z. Chiti, N. Drasdo, D. R. Owens, and R. V. North, “Silent substitution S-cone electroretinogram in subjects with diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 392–399, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Z. Chiti, R. V. North, K. E. Mortlock, and N. Drasdo, “The S-cone electroretinogram: a comparison of techniques, normative data and age-related variation,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 370–376, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. F. Marmor, L. Cabael, S. Shukla, J. C. Hwang, and M. Marcus, “Clinical S-cone ERG recording with a commercial hand-held full-field stimulator,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 101–107, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. R. Lucas and J. P. Newhouse, “The toxic effect of sodium L-glutamate on the inner layers of the retina,” A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 193–201, 1957. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. D. A. Antonetti, A. J. Barber, S. K. Bronson et al., “Diabetic retinopathy: seeing beyond glucose-induced microvascular disease,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 2401–2411, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Caputo, M. A. S. Di Leo, B. Falsini et al., “Evidence for early impairment of macular function with pattern ERG in type I diabetic patients,” Diabetes Care, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 412–418, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Ghirlanda, M. A. S. Di Leo, S. Caputo et al., “Detection of inner retina dysfunction by steady-state focal electroretinogram pattern and flicker in early IDDM,” Diabetes, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1122–1127, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. C. Prager, C. A. Garcia, C. A. Mincher, J. Mishra, and H.-H. Chu, “The pattern electroretinogram in diabetes,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 279–284, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. L. Trick, R. M. Burde, M. O. Gordon, C. Kilo, and J. V. Santiago, “Retinocortical conduction time in diabetics with abnormal pattern reversal electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 19–28, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. Falsini, V. Porciatti, G. Scalia et al., “Steady-state pattern electroretinogram in insulin-dependent diabetics with no or minimal retinopathy,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 193–200, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. V. Greco, M. A. S. Di Leo, S. Caputo et al., “Early selective neuroretinal disorder in prepubertal type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic children without microvascular abnormalities,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 98–102, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Siebert and M. Reiwer-Gostomska, “The role of angiogenic growth factors in the development of diabetic complications,” Kardiologia Polska, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 62–64, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Araszkiewicz, D. Zozulioska, and B. Wierusz-Wysocka, “Assessment of vascular-endothelial growth factor(VEGF) serum concentrationin type1 diabetic subjects,” Diabetologia Doświadczalna i Kliniczna, vol. 4, supplement 3, pp. 197–201, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  34. J. Cai and M. Boulton, “The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy: old concepts and new questions,” Eye, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 242–260, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Shweiki, A. Itin, D. Soffer, and E. Keshet, “Vascular endothelial growth factor induced by hypoxia may mediate hypoxia-initiated angiogenesis,” Nature, vol. 359, no. 6398, pp. 843–845, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. P. Aiello, J. M. Northrup, B. A. Keyt, H. Takagi, and M. A. Iwamoto, “Hypoxic regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in retinal cells,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 12, pp. 1538–1544, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. W. Stitt, C. McGoldrick, A. Rice-McCaldin et al., “Impaired retinal angiogenesis in diabetes: role of advanced glycation end products and galectin-3,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 785–794, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Simó and C. Hernández, “Intravitreous anti-VEGF for diabetic retinopathy: hopes and fears for a new therapeutic strategy,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1574–1580, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. L. Lip, F. Belgore, A. D. Blann, M. W. Hope-Ross, J. M. Gibson, and G. Y. H. Lip, “Plasma VEGF and soluble VEGF receptor FLT-1 in proliferative retinopathy: relationship to endothelial dysfunction and laser treatment,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 2115–2119, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Santilli, A. Spagnoli, A. Mohn et al., “Increased vascular endothelial growth factor serum concentrations may help to identify patients with onset of type 1 diabetes during childhood at risk for developing persistent microalbuminuria,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 3871–3876, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. H. Amin, R. N. Frank, A. Kennedy, D. Eliott, J. E. Puklin, and G. W. Abrams, “Vascular endothelial growth factor is present in glial cells of the retina and optic nerve of human subjects with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 36–47, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. A. Lutty, D. S. McLeod, C. Merges, A. Diggs, and J. Plouét, “Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor in human retina and choroid,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 114, no. 8, pp. 971–977, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Er, S. Doǧanay, E. Özerol, and M. Yürekli, “Adrenomedullin and leptin levels in diabetic retinopathy and retinal diseases,” Ophthalmologica, vol. 219, no. 2, pp. 107–111, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. C. Lim, N. G. Morgenthaler, T. Subramaniam, Y. S. Wu, S. K. Goh, and C. F. Sum, “The relationship between adrenomedullin, metabolic factors, and vascular function in individuals with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1513–1519, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Udono, K. Takahashi, S. Takano, S. Shibahara, and M. Tamai, “Elevated adrenomedullin in the vitreous of patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 765–767, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Nishikimi, K. Kitamura, Y. Saito et al., “Clinical studies on the sites of production and clearance of circulating adrenomedullin in human subjects,” Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 600–604, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. Ishimitsu, T. Nishikimi, Y. Saito et al., “Plasma levels of adrenomedullin, a newly identified hypotensive peptide, in patients with hypertension and renal failure,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 2158–2161, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. T. García-Unzueta, C. Montalbán, C. Pesquera, J. R. Berrazueta, and J. A. Amado, “Plasma adrenomedullin levels in type 1 diabetes: relationship with clinical parameters,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 999–1003, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. F. A. Zakareia, A. A. Alderees, K. A. Al Regaiy, and F. A. Alrouq, “Correlation of electroretinography b-wave absolute latency, plasma levels of human basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble fatty acid synthase, and adrenomedullin in diabetic retinopathy,” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 179–185, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. Taniguchi, K. Kawase, Z.-B. Gu et al., “Ocular effects of adrenomedullin,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 467–474, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. Udono, K. Takahashi, M. Nakayama et al., “Induction of adrenomedullin by hypoxia in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1080–1086, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. Okamura, K. Ayajiki, K. Kangawa, and N. Toda, “Mechanism of adrenomedullin-induced relaxation in isolated canine retinal arteries,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 56–61, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Honkanen, J. K. Nieminen, R. Gao et al., “IL-17 immunity in human type 1 diabetes,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 185, no. 3, pp. 1959–1967, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. K. Marwaha, S. Q. Crome, C. Panagiotopoulos et al., “Cutting edge: increased IL-17-secreting T cells in children with new-onset type 1 diabetes,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 185, no. 7, pp. 3814–3818, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. Piekarski and L. Szewczyk, “The role of Th17 cells in type 1 diabetes,” Endokrynologia Pediatryczna, vol. 4, no. 37, pp. 61–68, 2011. View at Google Scholar