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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 345217, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/345217
Research Article

Evaluation of Clinical and Immunological Responses: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Children with Allergic Rhinitis due to House Dust Mite

1Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2Department of Allergology, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
4Department of General Practice, VU University Medical Center, 1081 HZ, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Received 6 June 2012; Revised 3 April 2013; Accepted 4 April 2013

Academic Editor: Ger Rijkers

Copyright © 2013 Heleen Moed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Allergic rhinitis is a disease with polarization towards Th2 and a defect of regulatory T cells. Immunological changes have been reported after immunotherapy treatment. However, there is not much known about the natural course of allergic rhinitis with respect to clinical manifestation and the relation with immunological responses. Objective. To evaluate clinical symptoms of allergic rhinitis, in relation to in vivo allergen-specific skin responses and in vitro allergen-specific effector and regulatory T cells determined at baseline and after two years. Methods. From a large trial, 59 children were randomly selected. The following variables were compared: clinical symptoms, allergen skin tests, specific IgE, T-cell proliferation, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-gamma, IL-10, TGF-beta, cells, and Foxp3 expression. Results. Allergic symptoms had decreased after two years. Whereas skin test reactions correlated between years 0 and 2, there was no change in the size of the reaction. Also, proinflammatory reactions did not change after two years, with a positive correlation between years 0 and 2. No relevant changes were observed with respect to regulatory cells. Conclusion. Whereas, comparable to immunotherapy, allergic complaints decrease, the immunological changes of specific T-cell activity (both effector cells and regulator cells) which are observed after immunotherapy, do not change.