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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014, Article ID 798078, 16 pages
Research Article

Tumor Necrosis Factor Is a Therapeutic Target for Immunological Unbalance and Cardiac Abnormalities in Chronic Experimental Chagas’ Heart Disease

1Laboratório de Biologia das Interações, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24033-900 Niterói, RJ, Brazil
3Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e Doenças Endêmicas, IOC/Fiocruz, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 14 April 2014; Revised 24 June 2014; Accepted 26 June 2014; Published 22 July 2014

Academic Editor: Christophe Chevillard

Copyright © 2014 Isabela Resende Pereira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

Supplementary Figure S1: The high levels of IL-17A, IL-6 and NOx were detected in the serum of chronically T. cruzi-infected mice (Figures S1(a) and S1(b)), resembling chronic chagasic patients [4]. Anti-TNF therapy tended to decrease the levels of IL-17A, Il-6 and NOx in the serum in comparison with saline-injected chronically infected mice.

Supplementary Figure S2: At 120 dpi, chronically Colombian-infected C57BL/6 mice show CD8-enriched myocarditis [18]. Anti-TNF therapy did not diminish the general inflammatory foci composed of CD8+, CD4+, and F4/80+ macrophages) (Figure S2(a)) but reduced the number of CD8+ cells infiltrating the cardiac tissue (Figures S2(b) and S2(c)). Therefore, we tested whether it was a site restricted effect examining the cell composition of a secondary lymphoid tissue. The frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the spleen persisted unchanged after anti-TNF administration (Figure S2(d)).

  1. Supplementary Figures