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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 197150, 7 pages
Research Article

Early Dynamics of Cerebrospinal CD14+ Monocytes and CD15+ Granulocytes in Patients after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort Study

1Department of Trauma Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich, Germany
2Department of Trauma Surgery, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
3Department of Trauma Surgery, Klinikum Passau, 94032 Passau, Germany
4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, 81377 Munich, Germany

Received 3 June 2015; Revised 20 August 2015; Accepted 27 August 2015

Academic Editor: Jaap D. van Buul

Copyright © 2015 Lukas Kurt Postl et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the analysis of neuroinflammatory mechanisms gained increasing interest. In this context certain immunocompetent cells might play an important role. Interestingly, in the actual literature there exist only a few studies focusing on the role of monocytes and granulocytes in TBI patients. In this regard it has recently reported that the choroid plexus represents an early, selective barrier for leukocytes after brain injury. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the very early dynamics of CD14+ monocytes and CD15+ granulocyte in CSF of patients following severe TBI with regard to the integrity of the BBB. Cytometric flow analysis was performed to analyze the CD14+ monocyte and CD15+ granulocyte population in CSF of TBI patients. The ratio of CSF and serum albumin as a measure for the BBB’s integrity was assessed in parallel. CSF samples of patients receiving lumbar puncture for elective surgery were obtained as controls. Overall 15 patients following severe TBI were enrolled. 10 patients were examined as controls. In patients, the monocyte population as well as the granulocyte population was significantly increased within 72 hours after TBI. The BBB’s integrity did not have a significant influence on the cell count in the CSF.