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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 279393, 8 pages
Research Article

Elevated Serum Levels of Soluble TNF Receptors and Adhesion Molecules Are Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type-1 Diabetes

1Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
2Pediatric Endocrine Associates, Atlanta, GA 30342, USA
3Vascular Biology Center, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA

Received 7 July 2014; Revised 10 September 2014; Accepted 11 September 2014

Academic Editor: Peter Szodoray

Copyright © 2015 Shruti Sharma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aims. To examine the association of the serum levels of TNF receptors, adhesion molecules, and inflammatory mediators with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in T1D patients. Methods. Using the multiplex immunoassay, we measured serum levels of eight proteins in 678 T1D subjects aged 20–75 years. Comparisons were made between 482 T1D patients with no complications and 196 T1D patients with DR. Results. The levels of sTNFR-I, sTNFR-II, CRP, SAA, sgp130, sIL6R, sVCAM1, and sICAM1 were significantly higher in the T1D patients with DR as compared to T1D patients with no complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant association for five proteins after adjustment for age, sex, and disease duration (sTNFR-I: , sgp130: , sVCAM1: , sICAM1: , and CRP: ). Conditional logistic regression on matched paired data revealed that subjects in the top quartile for sTNFR-I , sTNFR-II , sgp130 , sIL6R , sVCAM1 , sICAM1 , CRP and SAA , had the highest odds of having DR. Conclusions. The circulating markers of inflammation, endothelial injury, and TNF signaling are significantly associated with DR in patients with T1D. TNFR-I and TNFR-II receptors are highly correlated, but DR associated more strongly with TNFR-I in these patients.