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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 379626, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/379626
Review Article

Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

School of Dental Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University, Karlovo Namesti 32 and Katerinska 32, 121 11 Prague, Czech Republic

Received 12 March 2015; Revised 15 May 2015; Accepted 18 May 2015

Academic Editor: Claudio Mastronardi

Copyright © 2015 Marta Novotna et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area.