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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 791060, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/791060
Review Article

Cancer as a Proinflammatory Environment: Metastasis and Cachexia

1Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04023-062 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2Universidade de São Paulo, Clínica Cirúrgica, Hospital Universitário, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 25 February 2015; Revised 17 April 2015; Accepted 11 May 2015

Academic Editor: Alessandro Laviano

Copyright © 2015 Nelson Inácio Pinto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The development of the syndrome of cancer cachexia and that of metastasis are related with a poor prognostic for cancer patients. They are considered multifactorial processes associated with a proinflammatory environment, to which tumour microenvironment and other tissues from the tumour bearing individuals contribute. The aim of the present review is to address the role of ghrelin, myostatin, leptin, HIF, IL-6, TNF-α, and ANGPTL-4 in the regulation of energy balance, tumour development, and tumoural cell invasion. Hypoxia induced factor plays a prominent role in tumour macro- and microenvironment, by modulating the release of proinflammatory cytokines.