Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2015, Article ID 793898, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/793898
Review Article

The Two-Way Association of Periodontal Infection with Systemic Disorders: An Overview

1Probiotics Research Laboratory, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
2Department of Periodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-0034, Japan

Received 26 December 2014; Revised 2 March 2015; Accepted 5 March 2015

Academic Editor: Javier Fernandez-Solari

Copyright © 2015 Ravinder Nagpal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. W. Taylor and W. S. Borgnakke, “Periodontal disease: associations with diabetes, glycemic control and complications,” Oral Diseases, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 191–203, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. W. Chaffee and S. J. Weston, “Association between chronic periodontal disease and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 1708–1724, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. J. Genco, S. G. Grossi, A. Ho, F. Nishimura, and Y. Murayama, “A proposed model linking inflammation to obesity, diabetes, and periodontal infections,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 2075–2084, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. L. Mealey and L. F. Rose, “Diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal diseases,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 135–141, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. W. Paquette, “The periodontal infection-systemic disease link: a review of the truth or myth,” Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 101–109, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. Bansal, S. Rastogi, and N. S. Vineeth, “Influence of periodontal disease on systemic disease: inversion of a paradigm: a review,” Journal of Medicine and Life, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 126–130, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. L. Shangase, G. U. Mohangi, S. Hassam-Essa, and N. H. Wood, “The association between periodontitis and systemic health: an overview,” Journal of the South African Dental Association, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 10–12, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. L. Mealey and M. P. Rethman, “Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: bidirectional relationship,” Dentistry Today, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 107–113, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Abe, K. Ishihara, M. Adachi, and K. Okuda, “Oral hygiene evaluation for effective oral care in preventing pneumonia in dentate elderly,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 53–64, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. M. G. Abreu, F. F. Lopes, A. F. V. Pereira, A. L. A. Pereira, and C. M. C. Alves, “The interface between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease,” RSBO, vol. 9, pp. 434–441, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. Pizzo, R. Guiglia, L. L. Russo, and G. Campisi, “Dentistry and internal medicine: from the focal infection theory to the periodontal medicine concept,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 496–502, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W.-L. Sun, L.-L. Chen, S.-Z. Zhang, Y.-M. Wu, Y.-Z. Ren, and G.-M. Qin, “Inflammatory cytokines, adiponectin, insulin resistance and metabolic control after periodontal intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis,” Internal Medicine, vol. 50, no. 15, pp. 1569–1574, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. G. Lazenby and M. A. Crook, “The innate immune system and diabetes mellitus: the relevance of periodontitis? A hypothesis,” Clinical Science, vol. 119, no. 10, pp. 423–429, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. L. Mealey and G. L. Ocampo, “Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 127–153, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Nagasawa, M. Noda, S. Katagiri et al., “Relationship between periodontitis and diabetes: importance of a clinical study to prove the vicious cycle,” Internal Medicine, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 881–885, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. X. Li, K. M. Kolltveit, L. Tronstad, and I. Olsen, “Systemic diseases caused by oral infection,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 547–558, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. V. Karthikeyan and A. R. Pradeep, “Gingival crevicular fluid and serum leptin: their relationship to periodontal health and disease,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 467–472, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Bullon, J. M. Morillo, M. C. Ramirez-Tortosa, J. L. Quiles, H. N. Newman, and M. Battino, “Metabolic syndrome and periodontitis: is oxidative stress a common link?” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 503–518, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Saito, N. Yamaguchi, Y. Shimazaki et al., “Serum levels of resistin and adiponectin in women with periodontitis: the hisayama study,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 319–322, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Katagiri, H. Nitta, T. Nagasawa et al., “Effect of glycemic control on periodontitis in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease,” Journal of Diabetes Investigation, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 320–325, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Bharti, S. Katagiri, H. Nitta et al., “Periodontal treatment with topical antibiotics improves glycemic control in association with elevated serum adiponectin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Obesity Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. e129–e138, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. G. Grossi and R. J. Genco, “Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: a two-way relationship,” Annals of Periodontology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 51–61, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. Asai, Y. Ohyama, K. Gen, and T. Ogawa, “Bacterial fimbriae and their peptides activate human gingival epithelial cells through Toll-like receptor 2,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 7387–7395, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Itoh, N. Udagawa, K. Kobayashi et al., “Lipopolysaccharide promotes the survival of osteoclasts via toll-like receptor 4, but cytokine production of osteoclasts in response to lipopolysaccharide is different from that of macrophages,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 170, no. 7, pp. 3688–3695, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Ö. Fentoğlu, B. K. Köroğlu, H. Hiçyılmaz et al., “Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in association between periodontal disease and hyperlipidaemia,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 8–16, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. O. Fentoglu and F. Y. Bozkurt, “The bi-directional relationship between periodontal disease and hyperlipidemia,” European Journal of Dentistry, vol. 2, pp. 142–146, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  27. F. DeStefano, R. F. Anda, H. S. Kahn, D. F. Williamson, and C. M. Russell, “Dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality,” British Medical Journal, vol. 306, no. 6879, pp. 688–691, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Beck, R. Garcia, G. Heiss, P. S. Vokonas, and S. Offenbacher, “Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 1123–1137, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Offenbacher, V. Katz, G. Fertik et al., “Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 1103–1113, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. J. Mattila, M. S. Nieminen, V. V. Valtonen et al., “Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction,” British Medical Journal, vol. 298, no. 6676, pp. 779–781, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. D. Beck and S. Offenbacher, “Systemic effects of periodontitis: epidemiology of periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 2089–2100, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Hosomi, S. Aoki, K. Matsuo et al., “Association of serum anti-periodontal pathogen antibody with ischemic stroke,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 34, no. 5-6, pp. 385–392, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. W. Taylor, B. A. Burt, M. P. Becker et al., “Severe periodontitis and risk for poor glycemic control in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 1085–1093, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. A. Scannapieco and A. W. Ho, “Potential associations between chronic respiratory disease and periodontal disease: analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. Xiong, P. Buekens, W. D. Fraser, J. Beck, and S. Offenbacher, “Periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review,” BJOG, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 135–143, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. R. Kamer, A. P. Dasanayake, R. G. Craig, L. Glodzik-Sobanska, M. Bry, and M. J. de Leon, “Alzheimer's disease and peripheral infections: the possible contribution from periodontal infections, model and hypothesis,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 437–449, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. S. Michaud, K. Joshipura, E. Giovannucci, and C. S. Fuchs, “A prospective study of periodontal disease and pancreatic cancer in US male health professionals,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 171–175, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. M. Murakami, J.-I. Suzuki, S. Yamazaki et al., “High incidence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans infection in patients with cerebral infarction and diabetic renal failure: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, article 557, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. Okamoto, M. Morikawa, K. Okamoto et al., “Relationship of tooth loss to mild memory impairment and cognitive impairment: findings from the fujiwara-kyo study,” Behavioral and Brain Functions, vol. 6, article 77, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. R. Kamer, D. E. Morse, P. Holm-Pedersen, E. L. Mortensen, and K. Avlund, “Periodontal inflammation in relation to cognitive function in an older adult Danish population,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 613–624, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G.-D. Batty, Q. Li, R. Huxley et al., “Oral disease in relation to future risk of dementia and cognitive decline: prospective cohort study based on the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: preterax and diamicron modified-release controlled evaluation (ADVANCE) trial,” European Psychiatry, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 49–52, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Makiura, Y. Ikeda, T. Hirai, H. Terasawa, N. Hamaue, and M. Minami, “Influence of diet and occlusal support on learning memory in rats behavioral and biochemical studies,” Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology, vol. 107, no. 3-4, pp. 269–277, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. K. Minn, S. H. Suk, H. Park et al., “Tooth loss is associated with brain white matter change and silent infarction among adults without dementia and stroke,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 929–933, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. P. Hujoel, B. A. White, R. I. García, and M. A. Listgarten, “The dentogingival epithelial surface area revisited,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 48–55, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. J. Seymour, P. J. Ford, M. P. Cullinan, S. Leishman, and K. Yamazaki, “Relationship between periodontal infections and systemic disease,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 3–10, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. V. E. Friedewald, K. S. Kornman, J. D. Beck et al., “The American Journal of Cardiology and Journal of Periodontology editors' consensus: periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1021–1032, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. K. J. Mattila, V. V. Valtonen, M. Nieminen, and J. K. Huttunen, “Dental infection and the risk of new coronary events: prospective study of patients with documented coronary artery disease,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 588–592, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. J. Arbes Jr., G. D. Slade, and J. D. Beck, “Association between extent of periodontal attachment loss and self-reported history of heart attack: an analysis of NHANES III data,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 1777–1782, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Buhlin, A. Gustafsson, J. Håkansson, and B. Klinge, “Oral health and cardiovascular disease in Sweden. Results of a national questionnaire survey,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 254–259, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. Y. Hanaoka, H. Soejima, O. Yasuda et al., “Level of serum antibody against a periodontal pathogen is associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension,” Hypertension Research, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 829–833, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. C. Herzberg and M. W. Weyer, “Dental plaque, platelets, and cardiovascular diseases,” Annals of Periodontology, vol. 3, pp. 151–160, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. P. J. Lindsberg and A. J. Grau, “Inflammation and infections as risk factors for ischemic stroke,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2518–2532, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. P. J. Pussinen, T. Vilkuna-Rautiainen, G. Alfthan et al., “Severe periodontitis enhances macrophage activation via increased serum lipopolysaccharide,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 2174–2180, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. B. Epstein and A. W. Chow, “Oral complications associated with immunosuppression and cancer therapies,” Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 901–923, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. C. Armitage, “Periodontal infections and cardiovascular disease—how strong is the association?” Oral Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 335–350, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. V. I. Haraszthy, J. J. Zambon, M. Trevisan, M. Zeid, and R. J. Genco, “Identification of periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 71, no. 10, pp. 1554–1560, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. F. Cavrini, V. Sambri, A. Moter et al., “Molecular detection of Treponema denticola and Porphyromonas gingivalis in carotid and aortic atheromatous plaques by FISH: report of two cases,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 93–96, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. Kozarov, D. Sweier, C. Shelburne, A. Progulske-Fox, and D. Lopatin, “Detection of bacterial DNA in atheromatous plaques by quantitative PCR,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 687–693, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Zaremba, R. Górska, P. Suwalski, and J. Kowalski, “Evaluation of the incidence of periodontitis-associated bacteria in the atherosclerotic plaque of coronary blood vessels,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 322–327, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L. L. Humphrey, R. Fu, D. I. Buckley, M. Freeman, and M. Helfand, “Periodontal disease and coronary heart disease incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 2079–2086, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Yoneda, S. Naka, K. Nakano et al., “Involvement of a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis on the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 12, article 16, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Forner, C. H. Nielsen, K. Bendtzen, T. Larsen, and P. Holmstrup, “Increased plasma levels of IL-6 in bacteremic periodontis patients after scaling,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 724–729, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. Inaba and A. Amano, “Roles of oral bacteria in cardiovascular diseases—from molecular mechanisms to clinical cases: Implication of periodontal diseases in development of systemic diseases,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 103–109, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. P. Barros, R. Suruki, Z. G. Loewy, J. D. Beck, and S. Offenbacher, “A cohort study of the impact of tooth loss and periodontal disease on respiratory events among COPD subjects: modulatory role of systemic biomarkers of inflammation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, Article ID e68592, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. Mojon, “Oral health and respiratory infection,” The Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, vol. 68, pp. 340–345, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  66. A. C. Didilescu, N. Skaug, C. Marica, and C. Didilescu, “Respiratory pathogens in dental plaque of hospitalized patients with chronic lung diseases,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 141–147, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. P. Weidlich, R. Cimões, C. M. Pannuti, and R. V. Oppermann, “Association between periodontal diseases and systemic diseases,” Brazilian Oral Research, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 32–43, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. A. Scannapieco, “Role of oral bacteria in respiratory infection,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 793–802, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. E. Langmore, M. S. Terpenning, A. Schork et al., “Predictors of aspiration pneumonia: how important is dysphagia?” Dysphagia, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 69–81, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. V. Quagliarello, S. Ginter, L. Han, P. Van Ness, H. Allore, and M. Tinetti, “Modifiable risk factors for nursing home-acquired pneumonia,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. F. Fourrier, E. Cau-Pottier, H. Boutigny, M. Roussel-Delvallez, M. Jourdain, and C. Chopin, “Effects of dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on bacterial colonization and nosocomial infections in critically ill patients,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1239–1247, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. T. Genuit, G. Bochicchio, L. M. Napolitano, R. J. McCarter, and M.-C. Roghman, “Prophylactic chlorhexidine oral rinse decreases Ventilator-associated pneumonia in surgical ICU patients,” Surgical Infections, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 5–18, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. N. Yoshida, K. Endo, and M. Komaki, “Dental hygiene education in Japan: present status and future directions,” International Journal of Dental Hygiene, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 179–184, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Koeman, A. J. van der Ven, E. Hak et al., “Oral with chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia,” The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 173, pp. 1348–1355, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  75. C. Cabrera, M. Hakeberg, M. Ahlqwist et al., “Can the relation between tooth loss and chronic disease be explained by socio-economic status? A 24-year follow-up from the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden,” European Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 229–236, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. K. Rosenquist, J. Wennerberg, E.-B. Schildt, A. Bladström, B. Göran Hansson, and G. Andersson, “Oral status, oral infections and some lifestyle factors as risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study in southern Sweden,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 125, no. 12, pp. 1327–1336, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. Talamini, S. Vaccarella, F. Barbone et al., “Oral hygiene, dentition, sexual habits and risk of oral cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 1238–1242, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. L. F. Garrote, R. Herrero, R. M. O. Reyes et al., “Risk factors for cancer of the oral cavity and oro-pharynx in Cuba,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 46–54, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. C. Abnet, Y.-L. Qiao, S. D. Mark, Z.-W. Dong, P. R. Taylor, and S. M. Dawsey, “Prospective study of tooth loss and incident esophageal and gastric cancers in China,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 847–854, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. C. Abnet, F. Kamangar, S. M. Dawsey et al., “Tooth loss is associated with increased risk of gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma in a cohort of Finnish smokers,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 681–687, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C. C. Abnet, Y.-L. Qiao, S. M. Dawsey, Z.-W. Dong, P. R. Taylor, and S. D. Mark, “Tooth loss is associated with increased risk of total death and death from upper gastrointestinal cancer, heart disease, and stroke in a Chinese population-based cohort,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 467–474, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. Z. Stolzenberg-Solomon, K. W. Dodd, M. J. Blaser, J. Virtamo, P. R. Taylor, and D. Albanes, “Tooth loss, pancreatic cancer, and Helicobacter pylori,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 176–181, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. B. S. Michalowicz and R. Durand, “Maternal periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 103–112, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. M. M. Slattery and J. J. Morrison, “Preterm delivery,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9344, pp. 1489–1497, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. F. Goffinet, “Primary predictors of preterm labour,” BJOG, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 38–47, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. Klebanoff and K. Searle, “The role of inflammation in preterm birth-focus on periodontitis,” BJOG, vol. 113, no. s3, pp. 43–45, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. C. Pretorius, A. Jagatt, and R. F. Lamont, “The relationship between periodontal disease, bacterial vaginosis, and preterm birth,” Journal of Perinatal Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 93–99, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. N. P. Polyzos, I. P. Polyzos, D. Mauri et al., “Effect of periodontal disease treatment during pregnancy on preterm birth incidence: a metaanalysis of randomized trials,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 200, no. 3, pp. 225–232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. Ye, S. Katagiri, N. Miyasaka et al., “The anti-phospholipid antibody-dependent and independent effects of periodontopathic bacteria on threatened preterm labor and preterm birth,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 65–72, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. P. Newnham, I. A. Newnham, C. M. Ball et al., “Treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 114, pp. 1239–1248, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  91. S. Offenbacher, J. D. Beck, H. L. Jared et al., “Effects of periodontal therapy on rate of preterm delivery: a randomized controlled trial,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 551–559, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. G. A. Macones, S. Parry, D. B. Nelson et al., “Treatment of localized periodontal disease in pregnancy does not reduce the occurrence of preterm birth: results from the Periodontal Infections and Prematurity Study (PIPS),” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 147.e1–147.e8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. F. Fogacci, M. V. Vettore, and A. T. Leão, “The effect of periodontal therapy on preterm low birth weight: a meta-analysis,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 153–165, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar