Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 3239167, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3239167
Research Article

Blood Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiles of HER2 Negative Breast Cancers Patients

1Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, 34-36 Republicii Street, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “I. Hatieganu”, 23 Marinescu Street, 400337 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3Department of Senology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, 34-36 Republicii Street, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4Department of Imagistics, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, 34-36 Republicii Street, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
5Department of Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, 34-36 Republicii Street, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Received 28 August 2015; Revised 2 December 2015; Accepted 8 December 2015

Academic Editor: Munitta Muthana

Copyright © 2016 Ovidiu Balacescu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. Dikshit et al., “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. E359–E386, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. M. Perou, T. Sørile, M. B. Eisen et al., “Molecular portraits of human breast tumours,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6797, pp. 747–752, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. Sørlie, C. M. Perou, R. Tibshirani et al., “Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 19, pp. 10869–10874, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Sørlie, R. Tibshirani, J. Parker et al., “Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 8418–8423, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Curtis, S. P. Shah, S.-F. Chin et al., “The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 breast tumours reveals novel subgroups,” Nature, vol. 486, no. 7403, pp. 346–352, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. G. Rivenbark, S. M. O'Connor, and W. B. Coleman, “Molecular and cellular heterogeneity in breast cancer: challenges for personalized medicine,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 183, no. 4, pp. 1113–1124, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Dent, B. Oyan, A. Honig, M. Mano, and S. Howell, “HER2-targeted therapy in breast cancer: a systematic review of neoadjuvant trials,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 622–631, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. A. Alizadeh, M. B. Elsen, R. E. Davis et al., “Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling,” Nature, vol. 403, no. 6769, pp. 503–511, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Hong, Y. C. Q. Zang, G. Hutton, V. M. Rivera, and J. Z. Zhang, “Gene expression profiling of relevant biomarkers for treatment evaluation in multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 152, no. 1-2, pp. 126–139, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. J. Olsen, J. H. Moore, and T. M. Aune, “Gene expression signatures for autoimmune disease in peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 120–128, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Sharma, N. S. Sahni, R. Tibshirani et al., “Early detection of breast cancer based on gene-expression patterns in peripheral blood cells,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. R634–R644, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Aarøe, T. Lindahl, V. Dumeaux et al., “Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood cells for early detection of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 1, article R7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. A. Smirnov, B. W. Foulk, G. V. Doyle, M. C. Connelly, L. W. M. M. Terstappen, and S. M. O'Hara, “Global gene expression profiling of circulating endothelial cells in patients with metastatic carcinomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 2918–2922, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. S. Zuckerman, H. Yu, D. L. Simons et al., “Altered local and systemic immune profiles underlie lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 132, no. 11, pp. 2537–2547, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. L. Whiteside, “Regulatory T cell subsets in human cancer: are they regulating for or against tumor progression?” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Jaillon, M. R. Galdiero, D. Del Prete, M. A. Cassatella, C. Garlanda, and A. Mantovani, “Neutrophils in innate and adaptive immunity,” Seminars in Immunopathology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 377–394, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Mantovani, M. A. Cassatella, C. Costantini, and S. Jaillon, “Neutrophils in the activation and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 519–531, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Hanahan and L. M. Coussens, “Accessories to the crime: functions of cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment,” Cancer Cell, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 309–322, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W. Tan, W. Zhang, A. Strasner et al., “Tumour-infiltrating regulatory T cells stimulate mammary cancer metastasis through RANKL-RANK signalling,” Nature, vol. 470, no. 7335, pp. 548–553, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. E. Lewis and R. Hughes, “Inflammation and breast cancer. Microenvironmental factors regulating macrophage function in breast tumours: hypoxia and angiopoietin-2,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 3, article 209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Servais and N. Erez, “From sentinel cells to inflammatory culprits: cancer-associated fibroblasts in tumour-related inflammation,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 229, no. 2, pp. 198–207, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Mantovani, P. Allavena, A. Sica, and F. Balkwill, “Cancer-related inflammation,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7203, pp. 436–444, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Erez, S. Glanz, Y. Raz, C. Avivi, and I. Barshack, “Cancer associated fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 437, no. 3, pp. 397–402, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Bocca, M. Ievolella, R. Autelli et al., “Expression of Cox-2 in human breast cancer cells as a critical determinant of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 121–135, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. D. Basu, L. B. Pathangey, T. L. Tinder, M. LaGioia, S. J. Gendler, and P. Mukherjee, “Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in an in vivo model of spontaneous metastatic breast cancer,” Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 632–642, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y.-R. Na, Y.-N. Yoon, D.-I. Son, and S.-H. Seok, “Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition blocks M2 macrophage differentiation and suppresses metastasis in murine breast cancer model,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 5, Article ID e63451, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Zhu, W. T. Y. Loo, C. W. N. Cheng, and L. W. C. Chow, “Possible predictive markers related to micro-metastasis in breast cancer patients,” Oncology Reports, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1217–1223, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Erez, M. Truitt, P. Olson, and D. Hanahan, “Cancer-associated fibroblasts are activated in incipient neoplasia to orchestrate tumor-promoting inflammation in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner,” Cancer Cell, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 135–147, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Sica, P. Allavena, and A. Mantovani, “Cancer related inflammation: the macrophage connection,” Cancer Letters, vol. 267, no. 2, pp. 204–215, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. Murdoch and C. E. Lewis, “Macrophage migration and gene expression in response to tumor hypoxia,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 701–708, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. F. M. Robertson, S. R. Mallery, V. K. Bergdall-Costell et al., “Cyclooxygenase-2 directly induces MCF-7 breast tumor cells to develop into exponentially growing, highly angiogenic and regionally invasive human ductal carcinoma xenografts,” Anticancer Research, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 719–727, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. D. Basu, W. S. Liang, D. A. Stephan et al., “A novel role for cyclooxygenase-2 in regulating vascular channel formation by human breast cancer cells,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 8, no. 6, article R69, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. M. Houghton, “The paradox of tumor-associated neutrophils: fueling tumor growth with cytotoxic substances,” Cell Cycle, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1732–1737, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. W. Gilchrist, R. Gray, B. Fowble, D. C. Tormey, and S. G. Taylor IV, “Tumor necrosis is a prognostic predictor for early recurrence and death in lymph node-positive breast cancer: a 10-year follow-up study of 728 eastern cooperative oncology group patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1929–1935, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Vakkila and M. T. Lotze, “Inflammation and necrosis promote tumour growth,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 641–648, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Pierobon, M. C. Bosco, F. Blengio et al., “Chronic hypoxia reprograms human immature dendritic cells by inducing a proinflammatory phenotype and TREM-1 expression,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 949–966, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. C. Bosco, D. Pierobon, F. Blengio et al., “Hypoxia modulates the gene expression profile of immunoregulatory receptors in human mature dendritic cells: identification of TREM-1 as a novel hypoxic marker in vitro and in vivo,” Blood, vol. 117, no. 9, pp. 2625–2639, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Balzarolo, C. Watzl, J. P. Medema, and M. C. Wolkers, “NAB2 and EGR-1 exert opposite roles in regulating TRAIL expression in human Natural Killer cells,” Immunology Letters, vol. 151, no. 1-2, pp. 61–67, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. M. Karapanagiotou, E. Pelekanou, A. Charpidou et al., “Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) detection in cancer patients: a prognostic marker for lung metastases from solid malignancies,” Anticancer Research, vol. 28, no. 2 B, pp. 1411–1415, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. L. Disis, “Immune regulation of cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 29, pp. 4531–4538, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. G. DeNardo and L. M. Coussens, “Inflammation and breast cancer. Balancing immune response: crosstalk between adaptive and innate immune cells during breast cancer progression,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 9, article 212, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. M. Reynolds, P. Angkasekwinai, and C. Dong, “IL-17 Family member cytokines: regulation and function in innate immunity,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 413–423, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. E. de Visser, A. Eichten, and L. M. Coussens, “Paradoxical roles of the immune system during cancer development,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 24–37, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Tsutsui, K. Yasuda, K. Suzuki, K. Tahara, H. Higashi, and S. Era, “Macrophage infiltration and its prognostic implications in breast cancer: the relationship with VEGF expression and microvessel density,” Oncology Reports, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 425–431, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. T. Camp, F. Elloumi, E. Roman-Perez et al., “Interactions with fibroblasts are distinct in basal-like and luminal breast cancers,” Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3–13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus