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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2016, Article ID 7650260, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7650260
Review Article

Cellular Barriers after Extravasation: Leukocyte Interactions with Polarized Epithelia in the Inflamed Tissue

1Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC-UAM, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK

Received 10 November 2015; Accepted 5 January 2016

Academic Editor: Jaap D. van Buul

Copyright © 2016 Natalia Reglero-Real et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

During the inflammatory response, immune cells egress from the circulation and follow a chemotactic and haptotactic gradient within the tissue, interacting with matrix components in the stroma and with parenchymal cells, which guide them towards the sites of inflammation. Polarized epithelial cells compartmentalize tissue cavities and are often exposed to inflammatory challenges such as toxics or infections in non-lymphoid tissues. Apicobasal polarity is critical to the specialized functions of these epithelia. Indeed, a common feature of epithelial dysfunction is the loss of polarity. Here we review evidence showing that apicobasal polarity regulates the inflammatory response: various polarized epithelia asymmetrically secrete chemotactic mediators and polarize adhesion receptors that dictate the route of leukocyte migration within the parenchyma. We also discuss recent findings showing that the loss of apicobasal polarity increases leukocyte adhesion to epithelial cells and the consequences that this could have for the inflammatory response towards damaged, infected or transformed epithelial cells.