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Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2017, Article ID 5048616, 23 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5048616
Review Article

Neuropeptides and Microglial Activation in Inflammation, Pain, and Neurodegenerative Diseases

1INBIOMED (Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas), UBA-CONICET, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
2IFEC-CONICET, Depto. Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina

Correspondence should be addressed to Mercedes Lasaga; ra.abu.demf@agasalm

Received 19 September 2016; Revised 26 November 2016; Accepted 5 December 2016; Published 5 January 2017

Academic Editor: Marta Agudo-Barriuso

Copyright © 2017 Lila Carniglia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Microglial cells are responsible for immune surveillance within the CNS. They respond to noxious stimuli by releasing inflammatory mediators and mounting an effective inflammatory response. This is followed by release of anti-inflammatory mediators and resolution of the inflammatory response. Alterations to this delicate process may lead to tissue damage, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Chronic pain, such as inflammatory or neuropathic pain, is accompanied by neuroimmune activation, and the role of glial cells in the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain has been the subject of increasing research over the last two decades. Neuropeptides are small amino acidic molecules with the ability to regulate neuronal activity and thereby affect various functions such as thermoregulation, reproductive behavior, food and water intake, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides can also affect inflammatory responses and pain sensitivity by modulating the activity of glial cells. The last decade has witnessed growing interest in the study of microglial activation and its modulation by neuropeptides in the hope of developing new therapeutics for treating neurodegenerative diseases and chronic pain. This review summarizes the current literature on the way in which several neuropeptides modulate microglial activity and response to tissue damage and how this modulation may affect pain sensitivity.