Table 1: Effects of linoleic (LA) fatty acid.

Fatty acidConditionStudy modelTreatment timeDose/concentrationMolecules associatedEffect in tissue repairReference

LAWound healingDiabetic Wistar rats18 days0.22 g/Kg bw (oral administration)Increased VEGF and ANGPT-2Accelerated the inflammatory phase and angiogenesis[38]
Pressure ulcersHealthy humans21 days1.6 g EFA with LA extracted from sunflower oil (topical application)NAIncreased hydration and elasticity.[40]
Wound healingHealthy rats12 days0.14 g solution with TGs, LA, vitamins A and E, and soy lecithin (topical application)NANo effects[41]
Wound healingZebrafish48 hours10–100 μg/mL of lucuma nut oilNAImproved regeneration (100 μg/mL)[42]
CD-1 mice11 days200, 500, or 1000 μg of lucuma nut oil (topical application)NAImproved wound healing and formation of new blood vessels (500 and 1000 μg)
Wound healingHealthy rats11 days0.52 μL/mm2 of pumpkin oil (topical application)Increased hydroxyproline contentAccelerated wound closure and bleeding time, improved fibrin stabilization, increased migration of fibroblasts, and reduced infiltration of macrophages[43]
Wound healingHealthy BALB/c mice20 days30 μM of pure LA (topical application)Increased NO productionAccelerated tissue repair[45]
Wound healingHealthy Wistar rats24 hours300 μL of pure LA (topical application)Increased total protein and DNA contents and elevated VEGF-α and IL-1No effect on wound area[48]
Wound healingHealthy Wistar rats5 days0.22 g/Kg bw of pure LA (oral administration)Increased H2O2 and AP-1 and reduced NF-κB, IL-1β, and IL-6Accelerated the inflammatory phase[49]
Neutrophil functionsIntraperitoneal neutrophils from healthy Wistar rats10 days0.11, 0.22, and 0.44 g/kg of bw (oral administration)Increased L-selectin, IL-1β, and CINC-2αβIncreased leukocyte-endothelium interactions[52]
Neutrophil functionsIntraperitoneal neutrophils from healthy Wistar rats20 minutes0, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μM (in vitro)Increased O2 and H2O2 (50 μM)Increased ROS[53]
Macrophage functionsMacrophages from healthy Wistar rats10 days0.22 g/Kg bw (oral administration)Reduced IL-6, VEGF, and IL-10Modulated cytokine production by macrophages[59]

Essential fatty acids (EFA); triglycerides (TGs); nitric oxide (NO); Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); interleukin-1β (IL-1β); body weight (bw); hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); activator protein-1 (AP-1); nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB); interleukin-6 (IL-6); angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT-2); cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2 (CINC-2αβ); reactive oxygen species (ROS); lipopolysaccharides (LPS); interleukin-10 (IL-10); not analysed (NA).