Laparoscopic Suture versus Mesh Rectopexy for the Treatment of Persistent Complete Rectal Prolapse in Children: A Comparative Randomized StudyRead the full article
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Extracervical Approaches to Thyroid Surgery: Evolution and Review
Over the last two decades, advances and adaptation of technology have led to a variety of endoscopic thyroidectomy procedures being performed. The drive for extracervical procedures has been predominantly influenced by the desire for improved cosmesis via avoidance of visible scars. Extracervical techniques have shown considerable evolution with approaches that have included transaxillary, breast, postauricular, and transoral routes. There has been a varied evidence base for each of these approaches with regard to technical feasibility, safety, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. In recent years, robotic-assisted thyroid surgery has gained increased popularity worldwide with the introduction of the da Vinci Robot. Reports of improved postoperative outcomes and patient satisfaction have been in contrast to the financial burden, longer operative time, and increased training required which, to date, have limited widespread application. The aim of this review is to describe the evolution of extracervical procedures including surgical approaches, outcomes, advantages, and disadvantages. Consideration is also given to the future direction of extracervical thyroid surgery with regard to the safety, feasibility, and application of robotic systems.
Assessment of Anastomotic Perfusion in Left-Sided Robotic Assisted Colorectal Resection by Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Angiography
Background. Indocyanine green fluorescent angiography (IcGA) has been used with success in guiding intraoperative management to prevent colorectal anastomotic complications. Prior studies in open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery, such as PILLAR II, have demonstrated a low anastomotic leak rate (1.4%). As the minimally invasive approach progresses from laparoscopic to robotic approach, the effect and safety of IcGA in assessing anastomotic perfusion in the latter deserve further investigation. Methods. The objective of the study was to determine the safety of IcGA in guiding intraoperative management of robotic assisted colorectal resection via perfusion assessment. The design was single-surgeon, retrospective case-control study. 74 patients underwent left-sided robotic assisted colorectal resection and anastomosis with IcGA guidance. 30 historical controls underwent left-sided robotic assisted colorectal resection and anastomosis without IcGA. Clinical, demographic, operative, and outcome variables were tabulated. Results. In the control group, 1 patient suffered a postoperative anastomotic stricture requiring no surgery, and 1 patient suffered an anastomotic dehiscence requiring return to the operating room. There were no anastomotic complications in the IcGA group, including 4 patients who underwent a change in the chosen level of anastomosis based on intraoperative IcGA. Conclusion. IcGA is safe to use as demonstrated by the very low rate of complications in this case series. It is also safe to rely on to guide re-resection and recreation of an anastomosis intraoperatively by demonstration of blood flow. This may help offset the loss of tactile feedback and assessment of tension in the robotic platform.
Development of a Two Port Laparoscopic Appendectomy Technique at a Rural Hospital
Background. Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) is most commonly performed using two 5-mm and one 10/12-mm ports. Various attempts to reduce the number and size of ports have been made and new technologies such as single port LA have been introduced. Appendix and mesoappendix are usually divided with a stapler or energy device with electrocautery, clips, and endoloop being cheaper options. Patients and Methods. This study includes 51 consecutive LAs performed at a rural hospital. Patients were divided into 4 groups: group 1 was the standard technique group (n=12), group 2 served as a “try-out” (n=12), group 3 served as feasibility group (n=12), and group 4 was the final patient cohort in which the optimized technique was preferably used (n=15). Results. Median age of the study cohort was 35.4 (range: 6.2-80.6) years, and 55% of patients were male. Whereas in G1 all patients had standard port placement (10/12-mm, 2x5-mm), in an increasing number of patients in G2-4 only two 5-mm ports and the 2.3-mm Teleflex minigrasper were inserted. Usage of staplers and/or energy devices was reduced from 100% in G1 to 20% in G4, and in the majority of cases both the appendix and the vascular pedicle were secured with an endoloop. The new technique did not add time to the procedure or total OR time. No stump-leaks or surgical site infections were encountered in this series, and there were no conversions to open surgery. Cost savings when not using a stapler or energy device are approximately 400$ per case; the minigrasper added approximately 200$ to the case. Discussion. LA with use of two ports and a portless needle grasper is feasible in the majority of cases and was associated with high patient satisfaction and excellent cosmetic results. Avoiding energy devices and staplers is cost saving; the endoloop securely controls appendix and mesoappendix.
Predictive Factors for a Long Postoperative Stay after Emergency Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Using the 2013 Tokyo Guidelines: A Retrospective Study
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is widely used for treating early acute cholecystitis (AC) and substantially reduces hospital costs. This study aimed to identify and evaluate risk factors associated with long postoperative hospital stays (PHSs) in patients undergoing emergency LC for AC according to the 2013 Tokyo Guidelines (TG13). Clinical data of patients who underwent emergency LC for AC between 2011 and 2017 were retrospectively collected. Patients were divided into early discharge (ED, discharge in three days or less postoperatively) and late discharge (LD, discharge in more than three days postoperatively) groups based on clinical progression and PHS after LC. Preoperative characteristics and perioperative outcomes were analysed as potential risk factors for LD. Among 149 patients, 104 (69.8%) were discharged within 3 days postoperatively, whereas 45 (30.2%) had long PHSs. Main causes of LD were fever and inflammation. Univariate analysis of preoperative risk factors revealed significant differences in age, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin (T-bil), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels; anticoagulation therapy; and TG13 severity grade. Multivariate analysis revealed that TG13 severity grade II, age >65 years, and elevated T-bil and ALP levels are independent factors for long PHS. Older age, worse biliary function, and increased TG13 severity grade might predict prolonged PHSs in AC patients undergoing emergency LC.
Role of 99mTc-HIDA Scan for Assessment of Gallbladder Dyskinesia and Comparison of Gallbladder Dyskinesia with Various Parameters in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Patients
Objectives. Pathogenesis of gallstone includes bile stasis due to defect in the gallbladder muscle contraction. Our aim of the study is to find out the role of 99mTc-HIDA scan in assessment of gallbladder dyskinesia in cholelithiasis patients before laparoscopic cholecystectomy and compare the gallbladder dyskinesia with various parameters like symptoms of patients, diabetic status of patients, gallstones size and number, and cholecystitis features in histopathology report after surgery. Material and Method. This is a prospective observational study conducted at our hospital for three years. Totally 40 patients with gallstone were subjected to 99mTc-HIDA scan, to assess the ejection fraction of gallbladder. For all these patients detailed clinical history, presence of comorbid illness like diabetics, and symptomatology were elicited. For all patients, ultrasonogram of abdomen was done to assess number and size of stones. All parameters were tabulated and correlated. Result. While comparing 99mTc-HIDA scan findings with symptoms of patients, 21.2% were asymptomatic and 78.8% symptomatic patients who had ejection fraction less than 80%. All patients in EF >80% group were symptomatic only. It is not statistically significant. On comparing 99mTc-HIDA scan findings with diabetic status of the patients, 42.4% of diabetic and 57.6 % of nondiabetic patients had ejection fraction less than 80%. It is not statistically significant (0.681). While comparing 99mTc-HIDA scan findings with size of the gallstone in ultrasound, 63.6% patients with size less than 1cm and 36.4% with size more than 1cm had ejection fraction < 80%. It is statistically significant (0.048). On comparing 99mTc-HIDA scan findings with number of stones in ultrasound, 18.2% single gallstone patients and 81.8% multiple gallstone patients had EF less than 80% which is statistically significant (0.001). While comparing the 99mTc-HIDA scan findings with histopathology report after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 21.2% non-cholecystitis patients and 78.8% cholecystitis patients had EF less than 80%, which is statistically (0.017) significant. Conclusion. 99mTc-HIDA scan can be an accurate method to diagnose the gallbladder dyskinesia. Gallbladder dyskinesia in 99mTc-HIDA scan can be used to predict large size stones and multiple stones before surgery. The sensitivity can be improved by 99mTc-HIDA scan in diagnosing cholecystitis patients.
Cost Analysis and Supply Utilization of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the highest volume surgeries performed annually. We hypothesized that there is a statistically significant intradepartmental cost variance with supply utilization variability amongst surgeons of different subspecialty. This study sought to describe laparoscopic cholecystectomy cost of care among three subspecialties of surgeons. This retrospective observational cohort study captured 372 laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases performed between June 2015 and June 2016 by 12 surgeons divided into three subspecialties: 2 in bariatric surgery (BS), 5 in acute care surgery (ACS), and 5 in general surgery (GS). The study utilized a third-party software, Surgical Profitability Compass Procedure Cost Manager and Crimson System (SPCMCS) (The Advisory Board Company, Washington, DC), to stratify case volume, supply cost, case duration, case severity level, and patient length of stay intradepartmentally. Statistical methods included the Kruskal-Wallis test. Average composite supply cost per case was $569 and median supply cost per case was $554. The case volume was 133 (BS), 109 (ACS), and 130 (GS). The median intradepartmental total supply cost was $674.5 (BS), $534 (ACS), and $564 (GS) (P<0.005). ACS and GS presented with a higher standard deviation of cost, $98 (ACS) and $110 (GS) versus $26 (BS). The median case duration was 70 min (BS), 107 min (ACS), and 78 min (GS) (P<0.02). The average patient length of stay was 1.15 (BS), 3.10 (ACS), and 1.17 (GS) (P<0.005). Overall, there was a statistically significant difference in median supply cost (highest in BS; lowest in ACS and GS). However, the higher supply costs may be attenuated by decreased operative time and patient length of stay. Strategies to reduce total supply cost per case include mandating exchange of expensive items, standardization of supply sets, increased price transparency, and education to surgeons.