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Anatomy of Rouviere’s Sulcus and Its Association with Complication of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Background and Objective(s). Rouviere’s sulcus (RS) is an important anatomical landmark. The aim of this study was to find the distribution of anatomical characteristics of RS seen during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the population of our part of the world and its association with complications. Methods. This is a prospective observational study involving patients of age ≥16 years who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for uncomplicated gall stone at BPKIHS between May and July 2019. Result. 230 cases were analyzed, and RS was present in 90.4%. Open sulcus type was the commonest (54%), followed by scar type (22.9%), closed sulcus type (12.5%), and slit type (10.6%), respectively. In 59.1% of cases, it was oblique to the anterior, inferior, and external edge of the liver, while in the remaining cases, it was transverse. The mean ± SD values for operative time and duration of hospital stay in the RS visible and the RS not visible groups were 29.16 ± 8.736 and 42.9 ± 23.646 minutes, and 1.26 ± 0.440 and 1.90 ± 0.910 days, respectively ( value ≤0.001). One minor complication occurred in each group: RS initially visible group and RS visible on the adhesion release group, while 3 minor complications occurred in the RS not visible group. Only one major complication occurred in the RS not visible group. Conclusion. Identification of RS by operating surgeons is a predictor of safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Minimally Invasive SPML Surgery for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Program Development
Improvements in surgical and rehabilitation care are critical to lessen the burden of cerebral palsy (CP), the most common cause of severe physical disability in childhood. The selective percutaneous myofascial lengthening (SPML) surgical procedure is a minimally invasive method designed to improve ambulation by lengthening contracted musculoskeletal tissues. Information on surgical procedures, efficacy, and safety of SPML for children with CP is lacking. Phase 1 of our research is a “proof-of-principle” study for multisite SPML to improve functional mobility of children with CP, and Phase 2 assesses safety, reoperation rates, and efficacy over time in subsequent patient series. Phase 1 was a repeated measurement case series study of 17 children (mean age 7.6 years). One physical therapist, blinded to the surgeon’s measurements, measured bilateral knee and ankle motion before and after SPML procedures, using video recordings of a standardized gait path. Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) 5, 50, and 500 outcomes were taken pre- and postoperatively and via telephone follow-up. In Phase 2, multisite SPLM surgeries were implemented in larger successive cohorts from 2006 to 2017. Complications, reoperation rates, and efficacy were retrospectively analyzed. Phase 1 results showed improvement in the children’s knee and ankle motion while ambulating and improved FMS 5, 50, and 500 outcomes postoperatively (mean, 6.3 months). At second follow-up (mean 33.3 months), FMS 500 scores continued improvement, while FMS 5 and FMS 50 scores maintained. During Phase 2, the complication rate was 2.4%, and reoperation rates (including reoperations due to maturation) were between 8% and 13%. Improvements to correct ankle equinus were recorded in 498 cases. In conclusion, in a specialized center, single-event, multilevel SPML surgeries of children with CP safely improved ambulatory knee and ankle angle motion and daily mobility outcomes. Future educational studies of training needs for surgeons new to the approach are needed.
Single-Incision Percutaneous Closure of Pediatric Inguinal Hernia: A New Modification for Intracorporeal Suture Knotting
Background. Single-incision percutaneous closure (SIPC) of pediatric inguinal hernia under laparoscopic guidance is a well-developed feasible technique; however, suture knotting remains a major challenge during this technique. Most laparoscopic surgeons prefer extracorporeal subcutaneous suture knotting, which may be associated with consequent formation of stitch sinus and increased recurrence rate. On the other hand, intracorporeal suture knotting necessitates the availability of special devices or homemade instruments with a long learning curve. Therefore, the present study innovates new and simple modification allowing intracorporeal suture knotting during SIPC of pediatric inguinal hernia that does not require any special operating devices or homemade instruments. Patients and Methods. Four-hundred children suffering from inguinal hernia of congenital type, submitted to SIPC using Epidural needle (EN), under laparoscopic guidance with intracorporeal suture knotting. Results. Children ages were 6 months to 10 years (the range). There were 300 boys and 100 girls, and two-hundred children suffered from left side hernia, 150 with right-side hernia, and 50 children with both left- and right-side hernia. 10 ± 2.2 minutes was the recorded operation time in one side hernia repair, while 14 ± 4.3 minutes was recorded for both side repair. Postoperative results reported recurrent hernia in one child and postoperative hydrocele in 3 children which resolved spontaneously after 3 weeks of follow-up. Conclusion. Intracorporeal suture knotting during SIPC of pediatric inguinal hernia allows for the transformation of a formally extraperitoneal procedure to an intraperitoneal procedure. This new modification for intracorporeal suture knotting does not require any special operating devices or homemade instruments. It seems to be an attractive way during SIPC of pediatric inguinal hernia when intracorporeal suture knotting is considered.
Pulmonary Recruitment Maneuver for Reducing Shoulder Pain after Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Background. Shoulder pain is a common symptom following laparoscopic surgery. This systematic review was undertaken to assess updated evidence regarding the effectiveness and complications of the pulmonary recruitment maneuver (PRM) for reducing shoulder pain after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Methods. A number of databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating PRM for reducing shoulder pain were searched up to June 2019. Two authors independently selected potentially relevant RCTs, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and compared results. Network meta-analyses were employed to simultaneously compare multiple interventions. Effect measures were presented as pooled mean difference (MD) or risk ratio (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results. Of the 44 records that we identified as a result of the search (excluding duplicates), eleven RCTs involving 1111 participants were included. Three studies had an unclear risk of selection bias. PRM with a maximum pressure of 40 cm H2O was most likely to result in the lowest shoulder pain intensity at 24 hours (MD −1.91; 95% CI −2.06 to −1.76) while PRM with a maximum pressure of 40 cm H2O plus intraperitoneal saline (IPS) appeared to be the most efficient at 48 hours (MD −2.09; 95% CI −2.97 to −1.21). The estimated RRs for analgesia requirement, nausea/vomiting, and cardiopulmonary events were similar across the competing interventions. Conclusion. PRM with 40 cm H2O performed either alone or accompanied by IPS is a promising intervention for alleviating shoulder pain within 48 hours following gynecologic laparoscopy.
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Challenges for a Novice Urologist
PCNL is the treatment of choice for large renal stones. It is a procedure of expertise. It may look simpler when done by an experienced urologist; however, for a beginner, learning each and every step is very important. He should be well-versed about the difficulties faced at every step and know how to tackle them. This article focuses mainly on the intricacies faced by a trainee during the procedure and how to troubleshoot them. Failure at any stage can lead to bleeding complications or incomplete removal of stones.
Current Scenario of Postcholecystectomy Bile Leak and Bile Duct Injury at a Tertiary Care Referral Centre of Nepal
Objective. With the adoption of safe cholecystectomy principles at an academic institute, the risk of major bile duct injury has decreased. This study aims at evaluating the present status of bile duct injury, compared to the study published in 2013 by index centre. Methods. This is a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of bile leak and bile duct injury from 2014 to 2019. Patients who completed postcholecystectomy bile leak or bile duct injury treatment and were on regular follow-up were included. Results. Eighteen patients (0.78%) among 2,300 consecutive cholecystectomies presented with bile duct injury, including 8 (0.35%) major bile duct injuries and 10 (0.43%) bile leaks compared to major bile duct injury rate of 0.68% (92/11,345 cholecystectomies) between 2001 and 2010. Injuries were classified as Strasberg’s type A (52.9%), type D (5.9%), and type E (41.1%). Eight patients (47%) of bile leak were managed conservatively with drains, while two required laparotomy and lavage. The mean time for spontaneous closure of bile leak was 11 days. Intraoperative repair was done in three cases: Roux en Y hepaticojejunostomy in 2 and end-to-end repair over T-tube in 1 for sharp transection of the duct. Delayed repair (Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy) was done in five patients. The median postcholecystectomy hospital stay was 8 days, with no mortality. There was no restricture at a median follow-up of 13 months. Conclusion. With the adoption of a safe culture of cholecystectomy, the major bile duct injury rate has decreased currently. Repair of bile duct injury by experienced hepatobiliary surgeon results in excellent outcome.