Laparoscopic vs. Robotic Gastrectomy in Patients with Situs Inversus Totalis: A Systematic ReviewRead the full article
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Minimally Invasive Plating of Distal Radius Fracture: A Series of 42 Cases and Review of Current Literature
Surgical techniques developed for distal radius fracture fixation have become increasingly advanced, including minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). This study aimed to introduce and evaluate the functional outcome of a novel MIPO technique that differs from previous reports. This study included 42 patients with distal radius fractures who underwent minimally invasive surgical plating of the distal radius. All patients were treated with closed reduction, fixation using K-wire, and subsequent insertion of a volar anatomical stable angle short plate on the distal radius. An arthroscopy-assisted evaluation and repair procedure were performed to correct intra-articular involvement, triangular fibrocartilage complex tears, and scapholunate injuries. Functional outcomes were assessed using a visual analog scale score; quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand score; and postoperative range of motion of flexion, extension, supination, and pronation at the 3-month follow-up, showing significant improvement in all parameters (all ≤ 0.05). This study provides a simpler yet reliable method with reproducible and consistent results to treat distal radius fractures using minimally invasive plating with closed reduction and plate insertion, resulting in satisfactory clinical outcomes in all patients.
Comparison of Perioperative, Functional, and Oncological Outcomes of Transperitoneal and Extraperitoneal Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy
Purpose. This study aimed to compare the oncological, functional, and perioperative outcomes of localized and locally advanced prostate cancer treated with intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Methods. From April, 2008, through December, 2020, 266 patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, 168 cases with an extraperitoneal approach (E-LRP) and 98 cases using a transperitoneal approach (T-LRP). The clinical, perioperative, functional, and oncological outcomes were collected and compared between these groups. At the 3-, 12- and 24-monthfollow-ups, the functional outcomes tested were urinary function (urinary domain of EPIC) and sexual function (sexual domain of EPIC). The oncological outcomes of biochemical recurrence, biochemical recurrence-free survival, and positive surgical margin status were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to identify factors predictive for biochemical recurrence. All statistical analyses used the R program. Results. The patient characteristics were similar between the E-LRP and T-LRP groups except for higher prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) in the T-LRP group. The T-LRP had lower overall operative time (222.5 min vs. 290 min, 0.001), decreased blood loss (400 ml vs. 800 ml, ), and shorter hospital stays (4 days vs. 7 days, ) compared to the E-LRP. Early sexual intercourse with penetration at 3 months was higher in the T-LRP group (36.7% vs. 15.5%, 0.001). Urinary continence (no pads) was not different between the T-LRP and E-LRP groups at 3 and 24 months after surgery but higher in the E-LRP group at 12 months (1% vs. 3%; , 85.1 vs. 83.7%; , 47.4% vs. 34.6%; , respectively). The EPIC questionnaire was used to assess functional outcomes at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery and found that urinary function was significantly higher in the T-LRP group at 3 and 12 months () but did not show a difference at 24 months (), and sexual function scores were higher in the T-LRP group at 12 and 24 months (). The positive surgical margin rate was higher in the E-LRP (38.7% vs. 21.4%; ). The BCR rate was not different between the groups (36.3% in the E-LRP group and 27.6% in the E-LRP group; ). Conclusion. Transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (T-LRP) was found to be superior to extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy (E-LRP) in perioperative outcomes such as decreased operative time, decreased blood loss, shorter hospital stay, lower positive surgical margin, and improved early sexual intercourse and sexual function. The urinary functional outcome was better in the T-LRP group at 3 and 12 months. These findings support the use of transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, as our study patients exhibited significant benefits from this procedure.
Clinical Factors to Predict Difficult Ureter during Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy
Objective. To identify risk factors for difficult ureters during ureteroscopic lithotripsy and to determine the appropriate indications for preoperative stenting. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 156 ureteroscopic procedures for upper urinary tract stones after excluding those with preoperative stenting or percutaneous nephrostomy. Traceability of the ureter was assessed by two urologists. Traceability was defined as positive if either or both urologists discerned the ureter in all slices on preoperative plain computed tomography. Patients’ backgrounds were compared between the nondifficult ureter and difficult ureter groups. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationships between difficult ureters and other clinical factors. Results. Of 156 patients, 31 (19.9%) were classified into the difficult ureter group. The positive traceability was higher in the nondifficult ureter group (48.3% vs. 83.2%, ). The major axis was smaller in the difficult ureter group than in the nondifficult ureter group (8.8 ± 3.9 mm vs. 10.9 ± 4.5 mm, ). A major axis <8 mm (odds ratio: 4.495, 95% confidence interval: 1.791–11.278, and ), negative traceability (odds ratio: 7.565, 95% confidence interval: 2.693–21.248, and ), smoking status (odds ratio: 3.196, 95% confidence interval: 1.164–8.773, and ), and absence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio: 5.813, 95% confidence interval: 1.121–30.142, and ) were identified as independent predictors of difficult ureters on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion. Patients with smaller stones, negative traceability, ongoing tobacco consumption, and absence of diabetes mellitus were at higher risk of difficult ureters. In these patients, preoperative stenting may be considered.
Hartmann’s Reversal: Controversies of a Challenging Operation
Purpose. Hartmann’s reversal is a complex operation with a high morbidity rate. Minimally invasive surgery has been used to reduce the impact of surgery on fragile patients. The aim of this comparative study is to look at the results of Hartmann’s reversal procedures with different approaches. Methods. All the patients who underwent Hartmann’s reversal were collected retrospectively (124 cases). Sixty-four patients (50.4%) had an open operation, 6 cases (5%) were treated with a conventional laparoscopic approach, 34 patients (28.1%) underwent single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), and 20 (16.5%) required other additional trocars. Results. SILS operations were slightly longer than the open procedures (175 min vs 150 min), with the same rate of postoperative complications and reoperations (p = 0.83 and p = 0.42), but with a shorter hospital stay (5 days p = 0.007). Age (p = 0.03), long operative time (p = 0.01), and ASA score (p = 0.05) were identified as independent factors affecting postoperative morbidity. The grade of adhesions caused a longer operative time (p = 0.001) and a higher risk of conversion , and short rectal stump increased the risk of protective loop ileostomy (p = 0.008). Patients with grade 2-3 of adhesions had a longer length of stay (p = 0.05). Conclusions. Minimally invasive procedures had a shorter hospital stay and did not show any increase in morbidity rate when compared with open cases. Age, longer operative time, and ASA score increased the risk of postoperative complications. Furthermore, patients with a short rectal stump had a higher chance of having a defunctioning ileostomy.
In Which Patients and Why Is Laparoscopy Helpful for the Impalpable Testis?
Since laparoscopy has been proposed in the management of the nonpalpable testis (NPT), this technique has been widely diffused among pediatric surgeons and urologists, but its application is still debated. We conducted a retrospective review to highlight how diagnostic and surgical indications for laparoscopy are selective and should be targeted to individual patients. From 2015 to 2019, 135 patients with NPT were admitted to our surgical division. Of these, 35 were palpable on clinical examination under anesthesia and 95 underwent laparoscopy. The main laparoscopic findings considered were: intra-abdominal testis (IAT), cord structures that are blind-ending, completely absent, or entering the abdominal ring. The patients’ mean age was 22 months. In 48 cases, an IAT was found, and 42 of these underwent primary orchidopexy while 6 had the Fowler–Stephens (FS) laparoscopic procedure. Of the first group one patient experienced a testicular atrophy while two a reascent of the testis. In the FS orchidopexy group, one patient had testicular atrophy. Cord structures entering the internal inguinal ring were observed in 35 children, and all were surgically open explored. In 3 cases of these, a hypotrophic testis was revealed and an open orchidopexy was executed. In the remaining the histological examination revealed viable testicular cells in four patients and fibrosis, calcifications, and hemosiderin deposits in the others. Eleven patients presented with intrabdominal blind-ending vessels and one a testicular agenesia. A careful clinical examination is important to select patients to submit to laparoscopy. Diagnostic laparoscopy, and therefore, the anatomical observation of the testis and cord structures are strictly related to develop a treatment plan. In IAT, many surgical strategies can be applied with good results. Laparoscopy offers a concrete benefit to the patient.
Analysis of Different Routes of Hysterectomy Based on a Prospective Algorithm and Their Complications in a Tertiary Care Institute
Introduction. Hysterectomy is the most common gynaecological operation worldwide. The objective of the study is to analyze the various routes of hysterectomy and its complications when the decision of route is based on using a prospective algorithm tree. Methodology. It is an observational study to analyze the route of hysterectomy based on using a prospective algorithm. The decision tree is based on pelvic pathology, uterine size, vaginal access, pelvic adhesion, competency of the surgeon, choice of the patient, and complication of different routes of hysterectomy. Data were collected from preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative records. Demographic factors, indications, routes of hysterectomy, and complications were recorded and analyzed by using SPSS software version 22. Observation. Among the malignant or suspected malignant pathology groups, TAH was performed in 89 cases and TLH was performed in 3 cases. Among the benign disease groups, VH was performed in 137(38.2%) cases, TAH was performed in 118(32.9%) cases, and TLH was performed in 104 (28.9%) cases. Operative time and a number of blood transfusions were significantly less with VH ( value < 0.0001 and 0.004) compared to abdominal and total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Postoperative complication such as fever was more with abdominal hysterectomy (<i>-</i>value<0.00001) compared to VH and TLH. Vaginal discharge was more with VH and TLH compared to TAH ( value −0.004) and wound infection was more in the abdominal route ( value 0.001). Conclusion. The abdominal route was the route of choice for surgery in malignancy or suspected malignant pathology. In benign pathology, VH was the most common and preferable route of surgery. Complications were found to be minimal with vaginal hysterectomy.