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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 589524, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/589524
Review Article

Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders That Reflect Human Copy Number Variation

1Laboratory of Integrative Bioscience, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan
2Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075, Japan

Received 12 March 2012; Revised 11 June 2012; Accepted 13 June 2012

Academic Editor: Hansen Wang

Copyright © 2012 Jun Nomura and Toru Takumi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The development of genetic technologies has led to the identification of several copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome. Genome rearrangements affect dosage-sensitive gene expression in normal brain development. There is strong evidence associating human psychiatric disorders, especially autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia to genetic risk factors and accumulated CNV risk loci. Deletions in 1q21, 3q29, 15q13, 17p12, and 22q11, as well as duplications in 16p11, 16p13, and 15q11-13 have been reported as recurrent CNVs in ASD and/or schizophrenia. Chromosome engineering can be a useful technology to reflect human diseases in animal models, especially CNV-based psychiatric disorders. This system, based on the Cre/loxP strategy, uses large chromosome rearrangement such as deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation. Although it is hard to reflect human pathophysiology in animal models, some aspects of molecular pathways, brain anatomy, cognitive, and behavioral phenotypes can be addressed. Some groups have created animal models of psychiatric disorders, ASD, and schizophrenia, which are based on human CNV. These mouse models display some brain anatomical and behavioral abnormalities, providing insight into human neuropsychiatric disorders that will contribute to novel drug screening for these devastating disorders.