Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2018, Article ID 5868570, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5868570
Review Article

Precision Light for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders

1Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
2Department of Neurology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
3McKnight Brain Research Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
4BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Fabian Fernandez; ude.anozira.liame@fnaibaf

Received 1 October 2017; Accepted 5 December 2017; Published 11 January 2018

Academic Editor: Harry Pantazopoulos

Copyright © 2018 Sevag Kaladchibachi and Fabian Fernandez. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Daan, “A history of chronobiological concepts,” in The Circadian Clock, pp. 1–35, Springer, New York, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  2. T. Roenneberg, R. Hut, S. Daan, and M. Merrow, “Entrainment concepts revisited,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 329–339, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Fingerman, “Tidal rhythmicity in marine organisms,” in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 25, pp. 481–489, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. C. S. Pittendrigh, “On temporal organization in living systems,” Harvey Lectures, vol. 56, pp. 93–125, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  5. T. H. Horton, “Conceptual issues in the ecology and evolution of circadian rhythms,” in Circadian Clocks, vol. 12, pp. 45–57, K1uwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  6. D. A. Golombek and R. E. Rosenstein, “Physiology of circadian entrainment,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 1063–1102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. G. Foster and C. Helfrich-Förster, “The regulation of circadian clocks by light in fruitflies and mice,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 356, no. 1415, pp. 1779–1789, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Roenneberg and R. G. Foster, “Twilight times: light and the circadian system,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 549–561, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. T. J. Bartness, C. K. Song, and G. E. Demas, “SCN efferents to peripheral tissues: implications for biological rhythms,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 196–204, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. S. Perreau-Lenz, P. Pévet, R. M. Buijs, and A. Kalsbeek, “The biological clock: the bodyguard of temporal homeostasis,” Chronobiology International, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Eckel-Mahan and P. Sassone-Corsi, “Metabolism and the circadian clock converge,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 107–135, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Y. Moore and N. J. Lenn, “A retinohypothalamic projection in the rat,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. A. Sadun, J. D. Schaechter, and L. E. H. Smith, “A retinohypothalamic pathway in man: light mediation of circadian rhythms,” Brain Research, vol. 302, no. 2, pp. 371–377, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. P. Morin, “Neuroanatomy of the extended circadian rhythm system,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 243, pp. 4–20, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Dibner, U. Schibler, and U. Albrecht, “The mammalian circadian timing system: organization and coordination of central and peripheral clocks,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 517–549, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. C. Klein, R. Smoot, J. L. Weller et al., “Lesions of the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus disrupt the suprachiasmatic→ spinal cord circuit in the melatonin rhythm generating system,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 647–652, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Ohi, M. Takashima, T. Nishikawa, and K. Takahashi, “N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor participates in neuronal transmission of photic information through the retinohypothalamic tract,” Neuroendocrinology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 344–348, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Y. Moore, “Neural control of the pineal gland,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 73, no. 1-2, pp. 125–130, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Kalsbeek, R. A. Cutrera, J. J. Van Heerikhuize, J. Van Der Vliet, and R. M. Buijs, “GABA release from suprachiasmatic nucleus terminals is necessary for the light-induced inhibition of nocturnal melatonin release in the rat,” Neuroscience, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 453–461, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Wirz-Justice and S. M. Armstrong, “Melatonin: nature’s soporific?” Journal of Sleep Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 137–141, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  21. C. Cajochen, K. Kräuchi, and A. Wirz-Justice, “Role of melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and sleep,” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 432–437, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Dawson and C. J. van den Heuvel, “Integrating the actions of melatonin on human physiology,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 95–102, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. E. J. W. Van Someren, “More than a marker: interaction between the circadian regulation of temperature and sleep, age-related changes, and treatment possibilities,” Chronobiology International, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 313–354, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Kräuchi, C. Cajochen, M. Pache, J. Flammer, and A. Wirz-Justice, “Thermoregulatory effects of melatonin in relation to sleepiness,” Chronobiology International, vol. 23, no. 1-2, pp. 475–484, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. J. Gooley, “Light resetting and entrainment of human circadian rhythms,” in Biological Timekeeping: Clocks, Rhythms and Behaviour, pp. 297–313, Springer, India, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. R. Y. Moore, “Retinohypothalamic projection in mammals: a comparative study,” Brain Research, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 403–409, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. G. Figueiro, “Disruption of circadian rhythms by light during day and night,” Current Sleep Medicine Reports, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 76–84, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. J. J. O. De Mairan, “Observation botanique,” Histoire de L'Académie Royale des Sciences, pp. 35-36, 1729. View at Google Scholar
  29. H. L. Duhamel Du Monceau, La Physique des Arbres, H. L. Guerin and L. F. Delatour, Eds., Paris, 1759.
  30. A. P. De Candolle, Physiologie Végétale, Bechet Jeune, Paris, 1832.
  31. E. Bünning, Die endogene Tagesrhythmik als Grundlage der photoperiodischen Reaktion, vol. 54, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 1936.
  32. E. Bünning, Uber die erblichkeit der tagesperiodizitat bei den Phaseolus-blattern, vol. 77, Jahrbuchern fur Wissenschaftliche Botanik, 1932.
  33. E. Bünning, Zur kenntnis der endogenen tagesrhythmik bei insekten und bei pflanzen, vol. 53, Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 1935.
  34. E. Bünning, Zur kenntnis der erblichen tagesperiodizitat bei den primarblattern von Phaseolus muttiflorus, vol. 81, Jahrbuchern fur Wissenschaftliche Botanik, 1935.
  35. E. Bünning, “Circadian rhythms and the time measurement in photoperiodism,” in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 25, pp. 249–256, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. W. Hastings and B. M. Sweeney, “A persistent diurnal rhythm of luminescence in Gonyaulax polyedra,” The Biological Bulletin, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 440–458, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. C. Pittendrigh, V. Bruce, and P. Kaus, “On the significance of transients in daily rhythms,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 965–973, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. C. S. Pittendrigh and V. G. Bruce, “Daily rhythms as coupled oscillator systems and their relation to thermoperiodism and photoperiodism,” in Photoperiodism and Related Phenomena in Plants and Animals, vol. 55, pp. 475–505, Washington, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  39. C. S. Pittendrigh, “Circadian rhythms and the circadian organization of living systems,” in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 25, pp. 159–184, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  40. P. J. DeCoursey, “Daily light sensitivity rhythm in a rodent,” Science, vol. 131, no. 3392, pp. 33–35, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. C. H. Johnson, “Forty years of PRCs-what have we learned?” Chronobiology International, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 711–743, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. T. A. Wehr, D. Aeschbach, and W. C. Duncan, “Evidence for a biological dawn and dusk in the human circadian timing system,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 535, no. 3, pp. 937–951, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. V. G. Bruce, “Environmental entrainment of circadian rhythms,” in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 25, pp. 29–48, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  44. V. G. Bruce, F. Weight, and C. S. Pittendrigh, “Resetting the sporulation rhythm in Pilobolus with short light flashes of high intensity,” Science, vol. 131, no. 3402, pp. 728–730, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. M. C. Moore-Ede and F. M. Sulzman, “The physiological basis of circadian timekeeping in primates,” The Physiologist, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 17–25, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  46. J. Aschoff, “Exogenous and endogenous components in circadian rhythms,” in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 25, pp. 11–28, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  47. J. Aschoff and R. A. Wever, “Spontanperiodik des menschen bei ausschluss aller zeitgeber,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 49, no. 15, pp. 337–342, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Siffre, Beyond Time, McGraw-Hill, 1964.
  49. J. Aschoff, E. Pöppel, and R. A. Wever, “Circadiane periodik des menschen unter dem einfluss von licht-dunkel-wechseln unterschiedlicher periode,” Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 306, no. 1, pp. 58–70, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. A. Wever, “Zur zeitgeber-stärke eines licht-dunkel-wechsels für die circadiane periodik des menschen,” Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 321, no. 2, pp. 133–142, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Aschoff, M. Fatranska, H. Giedke, P. Doerr, D. Stamm, and H. Wisser, “Human circadian rhythms in continuous darkness: entrainment by social cues,” Science, vol. 171, no. 3967, pp. 213–215, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. C. A. Czeisler, G. S. Richardson, J. C. Zimmerman, M. C. Moore-Ede, and E. D. Weitzman, “Entrainment of human circadian rhythms by light-dark cycles: a reassessment,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 239–247, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. C. Czeisler, J. Allan, S. Strogatz et al., “Bright light resets the human circadian pacemaker independent of the timing of the sleep-wake cycle,” Science, vol. 233, no. 4764, pp. 667–671, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. Czeisler, R. Kronauer, J. Allan et al., “Bright light induction of strong (type 0) resetting of the human circadian pacemaker,” Science, vol. 244, no. 4910, pp. 1328–1333, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. K. Honma and S. Honma, “A human phase response curve for bright light pulses,” Japanese Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 42, pp. 167-168, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  56. R. A. Wever, The Circadian System of Man. Results of Experiments under Temporal Isolation, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. R. A. Wever, J. Polásek, and C. M. Wildgruber, “Bright light affects human circadian rhythms,” Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 396, no. 1, pp. 85–87, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. A. Wever, “Light effects on human circadian rhythms: a review of recent Andechs experiments,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 161–185, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. B. Boivin, J. F. Duffy, R. E. Kronauer, and C. A. Czeisler, “Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to moderately bright light,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 9, no. 3-4, pp. 315–331, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. B. Boivin, J. F. Duffy, R. E. Kronauer, and C. A. Czeisler, “Dose-response relationships for resetting of human circadian clock by light,” Nature, vol. 379, no. 6565, pp. 540–542, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. E. Kronauer, “A quantitative model for the effects of light on the amplitude and phase of the deep circadian pacemaker, based on human data,” Sleep ‘90: Proceedings of the Tenth European Congress on Sleep Research, Pontenagel Press, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  62. R. E. Kronauer and C. A. Czeisler, “Understanding the use of light to control the circadian pacemaker in humans,” Light and Biological Rhythms in Man, pp. 217–236, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. J. M. Zeitzer, D.-J. Dijk, R. E. Kronauer, E. N. Brown, and C. A. Czeisler, “Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 526, no. 3, pp. 695–702, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. A. B. Lerner, J. D. Case, Y. Takahashi, T. H. Lee, and W. Mori, “Isolation of melatonin, the pineal gland factor that lightens melanocyteS1,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 80, no. 10, p. 2587, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. A. B. Lerner, J. D. Case, and Y. Takahashi, “Isolation of melatonin and 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid from bovine pineal glands,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 235, pp. 1992–1997, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  66. W. B. Quay, “Circadian and estrous rhythms in pineal melatonin and 5-hydroxy indole-3-acetic acid,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 710–713, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H. J. Lynch, “Diurnal oscillations in pineal melatonin content,” Life Sciences, vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 791–795, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. J. Wurtman, J. Axelrod, and L. S. Phillips, “Melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland: control by light,” Science, vol. 142, no. 3595, pp. 1071–1073, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. K. P. Minneman, H. Lynch, and R. J. Wurtman, “Relationship between environmental light intensity and retina-mediated suppression of rat pineal serotonin-N-acetyl-transferase,” Life Sciences, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1791–1796, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. B. D. Goldman and J. M. Darrow, “The pineal gland and mammalian photoperiodism,” Neuroendocrinology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 386–396, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. J. S. Takahashi, H. Hamm, and M. Menaker, “Circadian rhythms of melatonin release from individual superfused chicken pineal glands in vitro,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 2319–2322, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. S. R. Pandi-Perumal, M. Smits, W. Spence et al., “Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO): a tool for the analysis of circadian phase in human sleep and chronobiological disorders,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. G. M. Vaughan, R. W. Pelham, S. F. Pang et al., “Nocturnal elevation of plasma melatonin and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in young men: attempts at modification by brief changes in environmental lighting and sleep and by autonomic drugs,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 752–764, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. D. C. Jimerson, H. J. Lynch, R. M. Post, R. J. Wurtman, and W. E. Bunney, “Urinary melatonin rhythms during sleep deprivation in depressed patients and normals,” Life Sciences, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1501–1508, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. J. Lynch, D. C. Jimerson, Y. Ozaki, R. M. Post, W. E. Bunney, and R. J. Wurtman, “Entrainment of rhythmic melatonin secretion in man to a 12-hour phase shift in the light/dark cycle,” Life Sciences, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1557–1563, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Arendt, “Melatonin assays in body fluids,” Journal of Neural Transmission, Supplementum, vol. 13, pp. 265–278, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  77. E. D. Weitzman, U. Weinberg, R. D'Eletto et al., “Studies of the 24 hour rhythm of melatonin in man,” Journal of Neural Transmission Supplementum, vol. 13, pp. 325–337, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  78. T. Akerstedt, J. E. Fröberg, Y. Friberg, and L. Wetterberg, “Melatonin excretion, body temperature and subjective arousal during 64 hours of sleep deprivation,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 219–225, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. G. M. Vaughan, R. Bell, and A. De La Pena, “Nocturnal plasma melatonin in humans: episodic pattern and influence of light,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 81–84, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. J. Perlow, S. M. Reppert, L. Tamarkin, R. J. Wyatt, and D. C. Klein, “Photic regulation of the melatonin rhythm: monkey and man are not the same,” Brain Research, vol. 182, no. 1, pp. 211–216, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. L. Wetterberg, “Melatonin in humans physiological and clinical studies,” Journal of Neural Transmission, Supplementum, vol. 13, pp. 289–310, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  82. A. Lewy, T. Wehr, F. Goodwin, D. Newsome, and S. Markey, “Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans,” Science, vol. 210, no. 4475, pp. 1267–1269, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. C. Bojkowski, M. Aldhous, J. English et al., “Suppression of nocturnal plasma melatonin and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin by bright and dim light in man,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 19, no. 09, pp. 437–440, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. A. J. Lewy, H. A. Kern, N. E. Rosenthal, and T. A. Wehr, “Bright artificial light treatment of a manic-depressive patient with a seasonal mood cycle,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 139, no. 11, pp. 1496–1498, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. A. J. Lewy, R. L. Sack, and R. H. Frederickson, “The use of bright light in the treatment of chronobiologic sleep and mood disorders: the phase-response curve,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin, vol. 19, pp. 523–525, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  86. A. J. Lewy, R. L. Sack, and C. M. Singer, “Assessment and treatment of chronobiologic disorders using plasma melatonin levels and bright light exposure: the clock-gate model and the phase response curve,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 561–565, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  87. M. Atkinson, D. F. Kripke, and S. R. Wolf, “Autorhythmometry in manic-depressives,” Chronobiologia, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 325–335, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  88. D. F. Kripke, D. J. Mullaney, M. Atkinson, and S. Wolf, “Circadian rhythm disorders in manic-depressives,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 335–351, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  89. D. F. Kripke, S. C. Risch, and D. Janowsky, “Bright white light alleviates depression,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 105–112, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. T. Wehr, A. Wirz-Justice, F. Goodwin, W. Duncan, and J. Gillin, “Phase advance of the circadian sleep-wake cycle as an antidepressant,” Science, vol. 206, no. 4419, pp. 710–713, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. T. A. Wehr, F. M. Jacobsen, D. A. Sack, J. Arendt, L. Tamarkin, and N. E. Rosenthal, “Phototherapy of seasonal affective disorder: time of day and suppression of melatonin are not critical for antidepressant effects,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 870–875, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. N. E. Rosenthal, D. A. Sack, J. C. Gillin et al., “Seasonal affective disorder: a description of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapy,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 72–80, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. A. Lewy, R. Sack, L. Miller, and T. Hoban, “Antidepressant and circadian phase-shifting effects of light,” Science, vol. 235, no. 4786, pp. 352–354, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. N. E. Rosenthal, D. A. Sack, R. G. Skwerer, F. M. Jacobsen, and T. A. Wehr, “Phototherapy for seasonal affective disorder,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 101–120, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. M. C. Lee and C. C. H. Chan, “Dose-response relationship of phototherapy for seasonal affective disorder: a meta-analysis,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 315–323, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. R. N. Golden, B. N. Gaynes, R. D. Ekstrom et al., “The efficacy of light therapy in the treatment of mood disorders: a review and met-analysis of the evidence,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 656–662, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. M. Terman, “Evolving applications of light therapy,” Sleep Medicine Reviews, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 497–507, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. B. Mårtensson, A. Pettersson, L. Berglund, and L. Ekselius, “Bright white light therapy in depression: a critical review of the evidence,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 182, pp. 1–7, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. B. Nussbaumer, A. Kaminski-Hartenthaler, C. A. Forneris et al., “Light therapy for preventing seasonal affective disorder,” The Cochrane Library, vol. 11, article CD011269, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. D. Healy and J. M. Waterhouse, “The circadian system and the therapeutics of the affective disorders,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 241–263, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. G. Pail, W. Huf, E. Pjrek et al., “Bright-light therapy in the treatment of mood disorders,” Neuropsychobiology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 152–162, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. A. Wirz-Justice and M. Terman, “Chronotherapeutics (light and wake therapy) as a class of interventions for affective disorders,” Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 106, pp. 697–713, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. L. Chesson, M. Littner, D. Davila et al., “Practice parameters for the use of light therapy in the treatment of sleep disorders. Standards of practice committee, American academy of sleep medicine,” Sleep, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 641–660, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. A. van Maanen, A. M. Meijer, K. B. van der Heijden, and F. J. Oort, “The effects of light therapy on sleep problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Sleep Medicine Reviews, vol. 29, pp. 52–62, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. S. Rutten, C. Vriend, O. A. van den Heuvel, J. H. Smit, H. W. Berendse, and Y. D. van der Werf, “Bright light therapy in Parkinson’s disease: an overview of the background and evidence,” Parkinson's Disease, vol. 2012, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. A. Videnovic, E. B. Klerman, W. Wang, A. Marconi, T. Kuhta, and P. C. Zee, “Timed light therapy for sleep and daytime sleepiness associated with Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA Neurology, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 411–418, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. D. Forbes, C. M. Blake, E. J. Thiessen, S. Peacock, and P. Hawranik, “Light therapy for improving cognition, activities of daily living, sleep, challenging behaviour, and psychiatric disturbances in dementia,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2, article CD003946, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. C. I. Eastman, M. A. Young, L. F. Fogg, L. Liu, and P. M. Meaden, “Bright light treatment of winter depression: a placebo-controlled trial,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 883–889, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. A. J. Lewy, V. K. Bauer, N. L. Cutler et al., “Morning vs evening light treatment of patients with winter depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 890–896, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. Terman, J. S. Terman, and D. C. Ross, “A controlled trial of timed bright light and negative air ionization for treatment of winter depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 875–882, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. R. W. Lam, C. P. Gorman, M. Michalon et al., “Multicenter, placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine in seasonal affective disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 152, no. 12, pp. 1765–1770, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. F. Benedetti, C. Colombo, A. Pontiggia, A. Bernasconi, M. Florita, and E. Smeraldi, “Morning light treatment hastens the antidepressant effect of citalopram: a placebo-controlled trial,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 648–653, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. A. Tuunainen, D. F. Kripke, and T. Endo, “Light therapy for non-seasonal depression,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2, article CD004050, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. C. Even, C. M. Schröder, S. Friedman, and F. Rouillon, “Efficacy of light therapy in nonseasonal depression: a systematic review,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 108, no. 1-2, pp. 11–23, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. S. M. Wileman, J. E. Andrew, F. L. Howie, I. M. Cameron, K. Mccormack, and S. A. Naji, “Light therapy for seasonal affective disorder in primary care: randomised controlled trial,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 178, no. 4, pp. 311–316, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. R. W. Lam, A. J. Levitt, R. D. Levitan et al., “The Can-SAD study: a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of light therapy and fluoxetine in patients with winter seasonal affective disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 5, pp. 805–812, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  117. C. Rastad, J. Ulfberg, and P. Lindberg, “Light room therapy effective in mild forms of seasonal affective disorder—a randomised controlled study,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 291–296, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. K. J. Rohan, J. Meyerhoff, S.-Y. Ho, M. Evans, T. T. Postolache, and P. M. Vacek, “Outcomes one and two winters following cognitive-behavioral therapy or light therapy for seasonal affective disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 173, no. 3, pp. 244–251, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. BlueCross BlueShield Association, “Phototherapy light for the treatment of seasonal affective and other depressive disorders,” Medical Policy Reference Manual, Policy #1.01.04, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  120. Univera Healthcare, “Phototherapy for the treatment of seasonal affective disorder,” Medical Policy Reference Manual, Policy #1.01.24, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  121. R. W. Lam and E. M. Tam, A Clinician’s Guide to Using Light Therapy, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.
  122. A. O. Kogan and P. M. Guilford, “Side effects of short-term 10,000-lux light therapy,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 293-294, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  123. M. Terman and J. S. Terman, “Bright light therapy: side effects and benefits across the symptom spectrum,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 798–808, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. I. Provencio, G. Jiang, W. J. De Grip, W. P. Hayes, and M. D. Rollag, “Melanopsin: an opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 340–345, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. D. M. Berson, F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao, “Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5557, pp. 1070–1073, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. N. F. Ruby, T. J. Brennan, X. Xie et al., “Role of melanopsin in circadian responses to light,” Science, vol. 298, no. 5601, pp. 2211–2213, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. A. D. Güler, C. M. Altimus, J. L. Ecker, and S. Hattar, “Multiple photoreceptors contribute to nonimage-forming visual functions predominantly through melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells,” in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 72, pp. 509–515, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  128. C. M. Altimus, A. D. Güler, N. M. Alam et al., “Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1107–1112, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. S. Hughes, J. Rodgers, D. Hickey, R. G. Foster, S. N. Peirson, and M. W. Hankins, “Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, article 28086, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. G. C. Brainard, J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson et al., “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 6405–6412, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  131. K. Thapan, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene, “An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 535, no. 1, pp. 261–267, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. S. W. Lockley, G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler, “High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 4502–4505, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. G. Glickman, B. Byrne, C. Pineda, W. W. Hauck, and G. C. Brainard, “Light therapy for seasonal affective disorder with blue narrow-band light-emitting diodes (LEDs),” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 502–507, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. J. L. Anderson, C. A. Glod, J. Dai, Y. Cao, and S. W. Lockley, “Lux vs. wavelength in light treatment of seasonal affective disorder,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 203–212, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. Y. Meesters, V. Dekker, L. J. M. Schlangen, E. H. Bos, and M. J. Ruiter, “Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux) and standard bright light (10 000 lux) are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 17, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. M. C. M. Gordijn, D. 't Mannetje, and Y. Meesters, “The effects of blue-enriched light treatment compared to standard light treatment in seasonal affective disorder,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 136, no. 1-2, pp. 72–80, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. K. Roecklein, P. Wong, N. Ernecoff et al., “The post illumination pupil response is reduced in seasonal affective disorder,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 210, no. 1, pp. 150–158, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. S. A. Laurenzo, R. Kardon, J. Ledolter et al., “Pupillary response abnormalities in depressive disorders,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 246, pp. 492–499, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. K. A. Roecklein, K. J. Rohan, W. C. Duncan et al., “A missense variant (P10L) of the melanopsin (OPN4) gene in seasonal affective disorder,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 114, no. 1-3, pp. 279–285, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. V. Colavito, C. Tesoriero, A. T. Wirtu, G. Grassi-Zucconi, and M. Bentivoglio, “Limbic thalamus and state-dependent behavior: the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamic midline as a node in circadian timing and sleep/wake-regulatory networks,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 54, pp. 3–17, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. J. S. Takahashi, P. J. DeCoursey, L. Bauman, and M. Menaker, “Spectral sensitivity of a novel photoreceptive system mediating entrainment of mammalian circadian rhythms,” Nature, vol. 308, no. 5955, pp. 186–188, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. J. M. Kornhauser, D. E. Nelson, K. E. Mayo, and J. S. Takahashi, “Photic and circadian regulation of c-fos gene expression in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus,” Neuron, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 127–134, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. D. E. Nelson and J. S. Takahashi, “Sensitivity and integration in a visual pathway for circadian entrainment in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus),” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 439, no. 1, pp. 115–145, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. O. Dkhissi-Benyahya, B. Sicard, and H. M. Cooper, “Effects of irradiance and stimulus duration on early gene expression (Fos) in the suprachiasmatic nucleus: temporal summation and reciprocity,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 20, no. 20, pp. 7790–7797, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  145. D. Joshi and M. K. Chandrashekaran, “Bright light flashes of 0.5 milliseconds reset the circadian clock of a microchiropteran bat,” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology, vol. 230, no. 2, pp. 325–328, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. D. Joshi and M. K. Chandrashekaran, “Light flashes of different durations (0.063–3.33 msec) phase shift the circadian flight activity of a bat,” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology, vol. 233, no. 2, pp. 187–192, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. A. N. Van Den Pol, V. Cao, and H. C. Heller, “Circadian system of mice integrates brief light stimuli,” American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 275, pp. R654–R657, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  148. S. Daan and C. S. Pittendrigh, “A functional analysis of circadian pacemakers in nocturnal rodents II. The variability of phase response curves,” Journal of Comparative Physiology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 253–266, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. A. Arvanitogiannis and S. Amir, “Resetting the rat circadian clock by ultra-short light flashes,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 261, no. 3, pp. 159–162, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. L. Vidal and L. P. Morin, “Absence of normal photic integration in the circadian visual system: response to millisecond light flashes,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 3375–3382, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. L. P. Morin and C. N. Allen, “The circadian visual system, 2005,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1–60, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. F. Krüll, “Zeitgebers for animals in the continuous daylight of high arctic summer,” Oecologia, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 149–157, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. F. Krüll, H. Demmelmeyer, and H. Remmert, “On the circadian rhythm of animals in high polar latitudes,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 197–203, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. H. Pohl, “Spectral composition of light as a Zeitgeber for birds living in the high arctic summer,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 327–337, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. E. Cho, J. H. Oh, E. Lee, Y. R. Do, and E. Y. Kim, “Cycles of circadian illuminance are sufficient to entrain and maintain circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 37784, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. J. M. Zeitzer, N. F. Ruby, R. A. Fisicaro, and H. C. Heller, “Response of the human circadian system to millisecond flashes of light,” PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 7, article e22078, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. J. M. Zeitzer, R. A. Fisicaro, N. F. Ruby, and H. C. Heller, “Millisecond flashes of light phase delay the human circadian clock during sleep,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 370–376, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. R. P. Najjar and J. M. Zeitzer, “Temporal integration of light flashes by the human circadian system,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 938–947, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. M. Terman, D. Schlager, S. Fairhurst, and B. Perlman, “Dawn and dusk simulation as a therapeutic intervention,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 966–970, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. M. Terman and J. S. Terman, “Controlled trial of naturalistic dawn simulation and negative air ionization for seasonal affective disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 12, pp. 2126–2133, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  161. M. Terman and J. S. Terman, “Circadian rhythm phase advance with dawn simulation treatment for winter depression,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 297–301, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. D. Avery, M. A. Bolte, and M. Millet, “Bright dawn simulation compared with bright morning light in the treatment of winter depression,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 430–434, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. D. H. Avery, M. A. Bolte, S. R. Dager et al., “Dawn simulation treatment of winter depression: a controlled study,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 113–113, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  164. D. H. Avery, M. A. P. Bolte, J. K. Wolfson, and A. L. Kazaras, “Dawn simulation compared with a dim red signal in the treatment of winter depression,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 181–188, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. D. H. Avery, D. N. Eder, M. A. Bolte et al., “Dawn simulation and bright light in the treatment of SAD: a controlled study,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 205–216, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. US DOE, Solid-State Lighting Research and Development, Multi-Year Program Plan, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, United States Department of Energy, 2013.
  167. E. M. Dykens and A. C. M. Smith, “Distinctiveness and correlates of maladaptive behaviour in children and adolescents with Smith–Magenis syndrome,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 481–489, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  168. E. A. Edelman, S. Girirajan, B. Finucane et al., “Gender, genotype, and phenotype differences in Smith–Magenis syndrome: a meta-analysis of 105 cases,” Clinical Genetics, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 540–550, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. G. Laje, R. Morse, W. Richter, J. Ball, and A. Smith, “Autism spectrum features in Smith–Magenis syndrome,” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics, vol. 154, pp. 456–462, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. A. C. M. Smith, E. Dykens, and F. Greenberg, “Sleep disturbance in Smith-Magenis syndrome (del 17 p11. 2),” American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 186–191, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  171. H. De Leersnyder, M.-C. de Blois, B. Claustrat et al., “Inversion of the circadian rhythm of melatonin in the Smith-Magenis syndrome,” The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 111–116, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. L. Potocki, D. Glaze, D.-X. Tan et al., “Circadian rhythm abnormalities of melatonin in Smith-Magenis syndrome,” Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 428–433, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  173. H. De Leersnyder, “Inverted rhythm of melatonin secretion in Smith–Magenis syndrome: from symptoms to treatment,” Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 291–298, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. A. L. Gropman, S. Elsea, W. C. Duncan Jr, and A. C. M. Smith, “New developments in Smith-Magenis syndrome (del 17p11. 2),” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 125–134, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. P. M. Boone, R. J. Reiter, D. G. Glaze, D.-X. Tan, J. R. Lupski, and L. Potocki, “Abnormal circadian rhythm of melatonin in Smith–Magenis syndrome patients with RAI1 point mutations,” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, vol. 155, no. 8, pp. 2024–2027, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. L. Kocher, J. Brun, F. Devillard, E. Azabou, and B. Claustrat, “Phase advance of circadian rhythms in Smith–Magenis syndrome: a case study in an adult man,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 585, pp. 144–148, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. R. E. Slager, T. L. Newton, C. N. Vlangos, B. Finucane, and S. H. Elsea, “Mutations in RAI1 associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome,” Nature Genetics, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 466–468, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. S. R. Williams, D. Zies, S. V. Mullegama, M. S. Grotewiel, and S. H. Elsea, “Smith-Magenis syndrome results in disruption of CLOCK gene transcription and reveals an integral role for RAI1 in the maintenance of circadian rhythmicity,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 941–949, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. M. Nováková, S. Nevšímalová, I. Příhodová, M. Sládek, and A. Sumová, “Alteration of the circadian clock in children with Smith-Magenis syndrome,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. E312–E318, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. S. Diessler, C. Kostic, Y. Arsenijevic, A. Kawasaki, and P. Franken, “Rai1 frees mice from the repression of active wake behaviors by light,” eLife, vol. 6, article e23292, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  181. G. Vandewalle, P. Maquet, and D.-J. Dijk, “Light as a modulator of cognitive brain function,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 429–438, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. M. M. Ibrahim, A. Patwardhan, K. B. Gilbraith et al., “Long-lasting antinociceptive effects of green light in acute and chronic pain in rats,” Pain, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 347–360, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  183. S. A. Rahman, M. A. St Hilaire, A. M. Chang et al., “Circadian phase resetting by a single short-duration light exposure,” JCI Insight, vol. 2, no. 7, article e89494, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar