A Multisite Study on Knowledge, Perceived Motivators, and Perceived Inhibitors to Precepting Nursing Students within the Clinical Environment in GhanaRead the full article
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Depression and Anxiety among Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Nepal
The prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders is common among people with diabetes mellitus. Coexistence of diabetes and depression/anxiety increases the risk of diabetes complications and reduces the overall quality of life. Hence, this study aimed to assess the depression and anxiety among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chitwan. Descriptive survey was carried out among 296 purposively selected clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients admitted in the Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital from 15th June 2018 to 17th September 2019. Patients were interviewed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 (GAD-7). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of 296 diabetic patients, 48.6% were 60 years and above, 59.5% female and 61.5% literate; their common occupation was agriculture (38.2%) followed by household work (26.4%). Nearly two-thirds (62.8%) of diabetes patients had other chronic comorbid conditions. Depression and anxiety were observed among 57.8% and 49.7% of diabetes patients, respectively. While observing the severity, 27.4%, 19.6%, 8.4%, and 2.4% of patients had mild, moderate, moderately severe, and severe depression, respectively. Likewise, 24.7%, 20.3%, and 4.7% of patients had mild, moderate, and severe anxiety, respectively. Current living status, educational status, medicine adherence, satisfaction toward current treatment, and history of mental illness in the family were found to be significant factors associated with the anxiety of patients with diabetes. Further, educational status, smoking habit, satisfaction towards current treatment, and history of diabetes in family were the factors associated with depression. Prevalence of depression and anxiety is high among admitted patients with diabetes mellitus, and many factors are associated with it. Hence, regular screening services are essential along with diabetes management plan for timely identification and treatment of the vulnerable groups in the healthcare centers.
Preceptorship of Student Nurses in Ghana: A Descriptive Phenomenology Study
Background. Preceptorship plays an integral part in the clinical training of nursing and midwifery students, especially in high-income countries where it is a well-accepted concept. However, in Ghana, most nurses and midwives do not view preceptorship as part of their role. Aim. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of preceptorship of student nurses and the challenges confronting the preceptorship role. Methods. A descriptive phenomenological study was conducted with 22 purposively selected preceptors aged 34 to 56 years from five clinical placement sites in the Cape Coast Metropolis in the Central Region of Ghana. Most of the participants had been preceptors for two to 18 years. In-depth interviews were conducted with the aid of a semistructured interview guide and analysed by qualitative thematic analysis inspired by Braun and Clarke’s description of the method. Results. The essence of the phenomenon has been captured in three main themes: (1) being excited about the role as it offered opportunities to learn and build relationship with students. (2) Encountering challenges including student’s unwillingness to learn, absenteeism, and disrespect and also lack of interest of staff to assist students, time constraints, workload, burnout, parallel schedules of preceptors, and large student numbers, and (3) the need for effective collaboration between educational institutions and hospitals. Conclusions. Though preceptors were excited about precepting student nurses, the challenges associated with it are multidimensional which requires effective collaboration between educational institutions and clinical placement sites.
Effect of an Educational Program on Healthcare Professionals’ Readiness to Support Patients with Asthma, Allergies, and Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease for Improved Medication Adherence
Purpose. The aim of this study was to strengthen the healthcare professionals’ readiness to support patients who have asthma, an allergy, and COPD for better medication adherence. Methods. The design was an educational intervention in a study population (n = 70) consisting of 66 nurses and four other allied healthcare professionals working in primary care with patients diagnosed with asthma, allergy, or COPD in a county in southern Sweden. As part of two training days, an educational intervention—consisting of lectures and workshops—was conducted. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. The qualitative data were collected during the workshops when the participants worked with fictitious patient cases. They documented in writing how they, based on the theoretical content in the educational intervention in combination with their clinical experiences, reasoned that the fictitious patients could be supported for better adherence. This documentation constituted qualitative data. The quantitative data were collected through questionnaires, which the participants completed before and after the intervention. Data from the questionnaires were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-tests. The qualitative data collected from the workshops were analyzed with content analysis. Results. The intervention increased the participants’ knowledge of adherence (pre mean 3.95 versus post mean 4.18, ) and how to better support patients’ adherence to medication (pre mean 3.71 versus post mean 3.98, ). Moreover, their knowledge of how to measure patients’ adherence behavior (pre mean 3.02 versus post mean 3.54, ) and how to communicate with patients effectively about adherence was heightened (pre mean 3.92 versus post mean 4.13, ). Furthermore, participants felt that their readiness to support patients for better adherence had strengthened (pre mean 3.78 versus post mean 4.13, ). Individual adherence support for three fictitious patients with different adherence issues was developed. Conclusion. An educational intervention focusing on adherence and communication equipped healthcare professionals with tools to support patients with asthma, an allergy, or COPD for better medication adherence.
The Effect of Hand Reflexology Massage on Pain and Fatigue in Patients after Coronary Angiography: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Introduction. Coronary angiography can cause pain and fatigue in patients. Hand reflexology as complementary and integrative care approach has been suggested to help with the reduction of patient’s pain and fatigue. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hand reflexology on pain and fatigue in patients after coronary angiography. Design. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Methods. This study was conducted on 90 patients in an angiography department of a referral hospital in an urban area of Iran. The patients were randomly divided into two interventions (n = 45) and control (n = 45) groups. Hand reflexology was performed for 20 minutes in the intervention group. Pain and fatigue in the groups were measured immediately, 4 and 6 hours after the intervention. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed in pain and fatigue scores between the groups after the intervention (). The intervention had medium to large effects on the patients’ pain and fatigue. Hand reflexology as a nonpharmacological and safe technique can be used by nurses along with other pharmacologic interventions in order to reduce patients’ suffering related to invasive procedures. The trial is registered with IRCT20110912007529N17.
Families’ Experiences Living with Acquired Brain Injury: “Thinking Family”—A Nursing Pathway for Family-Centered Care
The objective of this study was to examine families’ experiences living with acquired brain injury (ABI) using a research approach that included both the affected individual family member and the family together as a family group. A narrative inquiry study, informed by the life-stage approach of Lieblich, Tuval-Mashiach, and Zilber, was used to obtain family stories. Families experiencing an ABI event were purposefully selected from different regions in a western Canadian province. Centered on the life stages of before the ABI event, now living with the ABI, and the future, thematic findings included: Families, a grounding force; Losses, individual and family; Family adaptive capacities; Experiences with the healthcare system-hospital to home; and A patchwork future-entering the unknown. Themes affirmed the significant impacts of ABI on individual and family members and acknowledged ABI as an ambiguous loss event. The findings also illuminated families’ strengths and resiliencies in coping with living with ABI. The study results suggest by “thinking family” nurses can contribute towards a healthcare model that focuses on “family” as the central unit of care.
Implementation of Nursing Process and Its Association with Working Environment and Knowledge in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. The nursing process is a scientific problem-solving approach, which directs nursing care and potentially improves quality of health care service. The national pooled implementation of the nursing process in Ethiopia remains unknown. Hence, this review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the overall implementation of the nursing process and its association with the working environment and knowledge in Ethiopia. Methods. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched and complemented by manual searches. The DerSimonian and Laird random effects model was applied to estimate the pooled effect size, odds ratios, and 95% confidence interval across studies. The I2 statistic was used to check heterogeneity between the studies. Sensitivity analysis was deployed to see the effect of a single study on the overall estimation. Publication bias was examined using funnel plot and Egger’s regression test statistic. Analysis was performed using STATA™ Version 14 software. Results. Seven studies comprised of 1,268 study participants were included in this meta-analysis. The estimated pooled implementation of the nursing process in Ethiopia was 42.44% (95% CI: 36.91, 47.97%). Based on subgroup analysis, methods of outcome measurement showed that the highest overall implementation of the nursing process was observed from studies conducted using self-report technique 42.95% (95% CI: 35.76, 50.15). Nurses working in stressful environment were 81% less likely to implement the nursing process (OR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.76), and nurses having good knowledge were 8 times more likely to implement nursing process (OR 8.38, 95% CI: 2.82, 24.86). Conclusion. The overall implementation of the nursing process in Ethiopia was relatively low. Good knowledge of nurse had paramount benefits to improve implementation of the nursing process. Therefore, nurse can be educated on the imperative of knowledge in order to enhance the nursing process implementation and to improve the overall quality of healthcare services. Furthermore, policymakers and other concerned bodies should give special attention to improving the implementation of the nursing process.