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Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 173184, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/173184
Review Article

Uterine Fibroids: Pathogenesis and Interactions with Endometrium and Endomyometrial Junction

1Woman's Health Sciences Department, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Corridoni 11, 60123 Ancona, Italy
2Department of Gynaecological Sciences and Human Reproduction, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 3, 35128 Padova, Italy
3Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Tronto 10/a, 60126 Ancona, Italy
4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal University of Minas Gerais and National Institute of Hormones and Women’s Health, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 28 February 2013; Revised 10 June 2013; Accepted 13 August 2013

Academic Editor: Hilary Critchley

Copyright © 2013 Andrea Ciavattini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids or myomas) are benign tumors of uterus and clinically apparent in a large part of reproductive aged women. Clinically, they present with a variety of symptoms: excessive menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhoea and intermenstrual bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and pressure symptoms such as a sensation of bloatedness, increased urinary frequency, and bowel disturbance. In addition, they may compromise reproductive functions, possibly contributing to subfertility, early pregnancy loss, and later pregnancy complications. Despite the prevalence of this condition, myoma research is underfunded compared to other nonmalignant diseases. To date, several pathogenetic factors such as genetics, microRNA, steroids, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix components have been implicated in the development and growth of leiomyoma. This paper summarizes the available literature regarding the ultimate relative knowledge on pathogenesis of uterine fibroids and their interactions with endometrium and subendometrial myometrium.