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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015, Article ID 125106, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/125106
Research Article

High-Dose Polymerized Hemoglobin Fails to Alleviate Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury due to Induction of Oxidative Damage in Coronary Artery

1Department of Anesthesiology and Translational Neuroscience Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083, China
3Department of Anesthesiology, Chengdu Military General Hospital, Chengdu 610083, China
4Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu 610052, China

Received 6 September 2014; Revised 19 December 2014; Accepted 22 December 2014

Academic Editor: Mengzhou Xue

Copyright © 2015 Qian Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable event for patients in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study was designed to investigate whether glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb), a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC), can protect heart against CPB-induced I/R injury or not and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results. A standard dog CPB model with 2-hour cardiac arrest and 2-hour reperfusion was established. The results demonstrated that a low-dose PolyPHb (0.1%, w/v) provided a significant protection on the I/R heart, whereas the high-dose PolyPHb (3%, w/v) did not exhibit cardioprotective effect, as evidenced by the impaired cardiac function, decreased myocardial oxygen utilization, and elevated enzymes release and pathological changes. Further study indicated that exposure of isolated coronary arteries or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to a high-dose PolyPHb caused impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was companied with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA) formation. Consistent with the increased oxidative stress, the NAD(P)H oxidase activity and subunits expression, including , , , and Nox1, were greatly upregulated. Conclusion. The high-dose PolyPHb fails to protect heart from CPB-induced I/R injury, which was due to overproduction of NAD(P)H oxidase-induced ROS and resultant endothelial dysfunction.