Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 380403, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/380403
Research Article

Preventive Treatment with Ketamine Attenuates the Ischaemia-Reperfusion Response in a Chronic Postischaemia Pain Model

1Department of Anaesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
2Laboratory and Clinical Research Institute for Pain, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
3Department of Anaesthesiology, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan

Received 18 September 2014; Accepted 21 December 2014

Academic Editor: Qian Fan

Copyright © 2015 Suryamin Liman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ischemia and inflammation may be pathophysiological mechanisms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Ketamine has proposed anti-inflammatory effects and has been used for treating CRPS. This study aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ketamine after ischaemia-reperfusion injury in a chronic postischaemia pain (CPIP) model of CRPS-I. Using this model, ischemia was induced in the hindlimbs of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Ketamine, methylprednisolone, or saline was administered immediately after reperfusion. Physical effects, (oedema, temperature, and mechanical and cold allodynia) in the bilateral hindpaws, were assessed from 48 hours after reperfusion. Fewer (56%) rats in the ketamine group developed CPIP at the 48th hour after reperfusion (nonsignificant). Ketamine treated rats showed a significantly lower temperature in the ischaemic hindpaw compared to saline () and methylprednisolone () groups. Mechanical and cold allodynia were significantly lower in the ischaemic side in the ketamine group (). Proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-2 were significantly lower at the 48th hour after reperfusion in ketamine and methylprednisolone groups, compared to saline (all ). In conclusion, immediate administration of ketamine after an ischaemia-reperfusion injury can alleviate pain and inflammation in the CPIP model and has potential to treat postischaemic pain.