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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1656450, 14 pages
Review Article

The Role of Oxidative Stress in Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury and Remodeling: Revisited

1School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401, India
2Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain, UAE

Received 7 January 2016; Revised 11 April 2016; Accepted 3 May 2016

Academic Editor: Alessandra Ricelli

Copyright © 2016 Gino A. Kurian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Oxidative and reductive stress are dual dynamic phases experienced by the cells undergoing adaptation towards endogenous or exogenous noxious stimulus. The former arises due to the imbalance between the reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant defenses, while the latter is due to the aberrant increase in the reducing equivalents. Mitochondrial malfunction is the common denominator arising from the aberrant functioning of the rheostat that maintains the homeostasis between oxidative and reductive stress. Recent experimental evidences suggest that the maladaptation during oxidative stress could play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of major cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infraction, atherosclerosis, and diabetic cardiovascular complications. In this review we have discussed the role of oxidative and reductive stress pathways in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Furthermore, we have provided impetus for the development of subcellular organelle targeted antioxidant drug therapy for thwarting the deterioration of the failing myocardium in the aforementioned cardiovascular conditions.