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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1892412, 35 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1892412
Review Article

1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

1Laboratory of Membrane Active Compounds and Beta-Diketones, Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Riga LV-1006, Latvia
2Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Received 14 August 2015; Accepted 7 October 2015

Academic Editor: Luciano Saso

Copyright © 2016 Astrida Velena et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry.