Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 1971452, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1971452
Review Article

Oxidative Stress after Surgery on the Immature Heart

Bristol Heart Institute, Level 7, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol BS2 8HW, UK

Received 17 January 2016; Revised 11 March 2016; Accepted 15 March 2016

Academic Editor: Serafina Perrone

Copyright © 2016 Daniel Fudulu and Gianni Angelini. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. P. Desborough, “The stress response to trauma and surgery,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 109–117, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. G. Laffey, J. F. Boylan, and D. C. H. Cheng, “The systemic inflammatory response to cardiac surgery: implications for the anesthesiologist,” Anesthesiology, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 215–252, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Clermont, C. Vergely, S. Jazayeri et al., “Systemic free radical activation is a major event involved in myocardial oxidative stress related to cardiopulmonary bypass,” Anesthesiology, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 80–87, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Zakkar, G. Guida, M.-S. Suleiman, and G. D. Angelini, “Cardiopulmonary bypass and oxidative stress,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2015, Article ID 189863, 8 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. M. Babior, “Phagocytes and oxidative stress,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 33–44, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. T. Kouchoukos, E. H. Blackstone, F. L. Hanley, and J. K. Kirklin, Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes Cardiac Surgery, vol. 1, Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012.
  7. V. Kumar, “Cell injury, cell death, and adaptations,” in Robbins Basic Pathology, chapter 1, pp. 14–15, Elsevier, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  8. C. I. McDonald, J. F. Fraser, J. S. Coombes, and Y. L. Fung, “Oxidative stress during extracorporeal circulation,” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 937–943, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. M. Ott, V. Gogvadze, S. Orrenius, and B. Zhivotovsky, “Mitochondria, oxidative stress and cell death,” Apoptosis, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 913–922, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. H. Szeto, “Mitochondria-targeted cytoprotective peptides for ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 601–619, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. F. Dai, E. J. Hsieh, Y. Liu et al., “Mitochondrial proteome remodelling in pressure overload-induced heart failure: the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 93, pp. 79–88, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. J. Dare, A. Logan, T. A. Prime et al., “The mitochondria-targeted anti-oxidant MitoQ decreases ischemia-reperfusion injury in a murine syngeneic heart transplant model,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1471–1480, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. O. Oyewole and M. A. Birch-Machin, “Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 4766–4771, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. O. D. Saugstad, “Bronchopulmonary dysplasia—oxidative stress and antioxidants,” Seminars in Neonatology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Q. Huang, H. J. Zhou, H. Zhang et al., “Thioredoxin-2 inhibits mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis stress kinase-1 activity to maintain cardiac function,” Circulation, vol. 131, no. 12, pp. 1082–1097, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. H. Manso, F. Carmona, F. Dal-Pizzol et al., “Oxidative stress markers are not associated with outcomes after pediatric heart surgery,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 188–194, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. J. Gutierrez, S. W. Ballinger, V. M. Darley-Usmar, and A. Landar, “Free radicals, mitochondria, and oxidized lipids. The emerging role in signal transduction in vascular cells,” Circulation Research, vol. 99, no. 9, pp. 924–932, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. J. Morgan and Z. G. Liu, “Crosstalk of reactive oxygen species and NF-kappaB signaling,” Cell Research, vol. 21, pp. 103–115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. S. Christen, B. Finckh, J. Lykkesfeldt et al., “Oxidative stress precedes peak systemic inflammatory response in pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass operation,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1323–1332, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Kawahito, E. Kobayashi, M. Ohmori et al., “Enhanced responsiveness of circulatory neutrophils after cardiopulmonary bypass: increased aggregability and superoxide producing capacity,” Artificial Organs, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. Karu, G. Taal, K. Zilmer, C. Pruunsild, J. Starkopf, and R. Zilmer, “Inflammatory/oxidative stress during the first week after different types of cardiac surgery,” Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 119–124, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. R. K. Schindhelm, L. P. van der Zwan, T. Teerlink, and P. G. Scheffer, “Myeloperoxidase: a useful biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk stratification?” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1462–1470, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Calza, F. Lerzo, F. Perfumo et al., “Clinical evaluation of oxidative stress and myocardial reperfusion injury in pediatric cardiac surgery,” Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 441–447, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Gil-Gómez, J. Blasco-Alonso, R. Castillo-Martín, and G. Milano-Manso, “Indicadores pronósticos clínicos en el posoperatorio de cirugía cardiovascular pediátrica y su relación con la cinética del estrés oxidativo,” Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. M. Caputo, A. Mokhtari, A. Miceli et al., “Controlled reoxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass decreases markers of organ damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress in single-ventricle patients undergoing pediatric heart surgery,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 792–801, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Caputo, A. Mokhtari, C. A. Rogers et al., “The effects of normoxic versus hyperoxic cardiopulmonary bypass on oxidative stress and inflammatory response in cyanotic pediatric patients undergoing open cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 206–214, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Hirthler, J. Simoni, and M. Dickson, “Elevated levels of endotoxin, oxygen-derived free radicals, and cytokines during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1199–1202, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. J. Lefer and D. N. Granger, “Oxidative stress and cardiac disease,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 315–323, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. D. Buckberg, “Studies of hypoxemic/reoxygenation injury. I. Linkage between cardiac function and oxidant damage,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 1164–1170, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. P. Taggart, L. Hadjinikolas, J. Hooper et al., “Effects of age and ischemic times on biochemical evidence of myocardial injury after pediatric cardiac operations,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 728–735, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. R.-K. Li, D. A. G. Mickle, R. D. Weisel et al., “Effect of oxygen tension on the anti-oxidant enzyme activities of tetralogy of Fallot ventricular myocytes,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 567–575, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Morita, K. Ihnken, G. D. Buckberg, M. P. Sherman, and H. H. Young, “Studies of hypoxemic/reoxygenation injury: without aortic clamping. IV. Role of the iron-catalyzed pathway: deferoxamine,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 1190–1199, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. B. Cabigas, G. Ding, T. Chen et al., “Age- and chamber-specific differences in oxidative stress after ischemic injury,” Pediatric Cardiology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 322–331, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. A. Kloner, K. Przyklenk, and P. Whittaker, “Deleterious effects of oxygen radicals in ischemia/reperfusion. Resolved and unresolved issues,” Circulation, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 1115–1127, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. S. Oliveira, E. M. Floriano, S. C. Mazin et al., “Ischemic myocardial injuries after cardiac malformation repair in infants may be associated with oxidative stress mechanisms,” Cardiovascular Pathology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. e43–e52, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. K. Ihnken, K. Morita, G. D. Buckberg et al., “Studies of hypoxemic/reoxygenation injury: without aortic clamping. II. Evidence for reoxygenation damage,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 1171–1181, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. C. Cavarocchi, M. D. England, J. F. O'Brien et al., “Superoxide generation during cardiopulmonary bypass: is there a role for vitamin E?” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 519–527, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. C. Cavarocchi, M. D. England, H. V. Schaff et al., “Oxygen free radical generation during cardiopulmonary bypass: correlation with complement activation,” Circulation, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. III130–III133, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. A. Pyles, J. E. Fortney, J. J. Kudlak, R. A. Gustafson, and S. Einzig, “Plasma antioxidant depletion after cardiopulmonary bypass in operations for congenital heart disease,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 165–171, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Mumby, R. R. Chaturvedi, J. Brierley et al., “Iron overload in paediatrics undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1500, no. 3, pp. 342–348, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. Wright, “Haemolysis during cardiopulmonary bypass: Update,” Perfusion, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 345–351, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. S. Mamikonian, L. B. Mamo, P. B. Smith, J. Koo, A. J. Lodge, and J. L. Turi, “Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with hemolysis and acute kidney injury in neonates, infants, and children*,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. e111–e119, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Mumby, T. W. Koh, J. R. Pepper, and J. M. C. Gutteridge, “Risk of iron overload is decreased in beating heart coronary artery surgery compared to conventional bypass,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1537, no. 3, pp. 204–210, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. R. Chaturvedi, D. F. Shore, C. Lincoln et al., “Acute right ventricular restrictive physiology after repair of tetralogy of fallot: association with myocardial injury and oxidative stress,” Circulation, vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 1540–1547, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. A. Simpson, H. Zaccagni, D. P. Bichell et al., “Acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 503–510, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Gitto, M. Karbownik, R. J. Reiter et al., “Effects of melatonin treatment in septic newborns,” Pediatric Research, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 756–760, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. U. Kiziltepe, B. Tunçtan, Z. B. Eyileten et al., “Efficiency of L-arginine enriched cardioplegia and non-cardioplegic reperfusion in ischemic hearts,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 93–100, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Ozaydin, O. Peker, D. Erdogan et al., “N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 625–631, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. S. Adabag, A. Ishani, H. E. Bloomfield, A. K. Ngo, and T. J. Wilt, “Efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in preventing renal injury after heart surgery: a systematic review of randomized trials,” European Heart Journal, vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 1910–1917, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. D. England, N. C. Cavarocchi, J. F. O'Brien et al., “Influence of antioxidants (mannitol and allopurinol) on oxygen free radical generation during and after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Circulation, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. III134–III137, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Bochenek, Z. Religa, T. J. Spyt et al., “Protective influence of pretreatment with allopurinol on myocardial function in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery,” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 538–542, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Coetzee, G. Roussouw, and L. Macgregor, “Failure of allopurinol to improve left ventricular stroke work after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery,” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 627–633, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. J. Marro, S. Baumgart, M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos et al., “Purine metabolism and inhibition of xanthine oxidase in severely hypoxic neonates going onto extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,” Pediatric Research, vol. 41, pp. 513–520, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. W.-F. Xia, Y. Liu, Q.-S. Zhou, Q.-Z. Tang, and H.-D. Zou, “Protective effect of propofol and its relation to postoperation recovery in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass,” Pediatric Cardiology, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 940–946, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W.-F. Xia, Y. Liu, Q.-S. Zhou, Q.-Z. Tang, and H.-D. Zou, “Comparison of the effects of propofol and midazolam on inflammation and oxidase stress in children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 326–332, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Z. Xia, J. Gu, D. M. Ansley, F. Xia, and J. Yu, “Antioxidant therapy with Salvia miltiorrhiza decreases plasma endothelin-1 and thromboxane B2 after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with congenital heart disease,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 1404–1410, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Gitto, C. Romeo, R. J. Reiter et al., “Melatonin reduces oxidative stress in surgical neonates,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 184–189, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. J. Reiter, J. R. Calvo, M. Karbownik, W. Qi, and D. X. Tan, “Melatonin and its relation to the immune system and inflammation,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 917, pp. 376–386, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Yang, Y. Sun, W. Yi et al., “A review of melatonin as a suitable antioxidant against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and clinical heart diseases,” Journal of Pineal Research, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 357–366, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. F. Broche, A. Romero, E. Olembe et al., “Aprotinin mediated antioxidant effect in cardiosurgery with mechanical cardiorespiratory support (CMCS),” Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 429–436, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. V. F. Broche, A. Romero Suàrez, E. Olembe et al., “Aprotinin effects related to oxidative stress in cardiosurgery with mechanical cardiorespiratory support (CMCS),” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 793, pp. 521–524, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. V. J. Adlam, J. C. Harrison, C. M. Porteous et al., “Targeting an antioxidant to mitochondria decreases cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1088–1095, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. P. A. Checchia, R. A. Bronicki, J. M. Costello, and D. P. Nelson, “Steroid use before pediatric cardiac operations using cardiopulmonary bypass: an international survey of 36 centers,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 441–444, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Allen, S. Sundararajan, N. Pathan, M. Burmester, and D. MacRae, “Anti-inflammatory modalities: their current use in pediatric cardiac surgery in the United Kingdom and Ireland,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 341–345, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. A. Bronicki, C. L. Backer, H. P. Baden, C. Mavroudis, S. E. Crawford, and T. P. Green, “Dexamethasone reduces the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass in children,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 1490–1495, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. Lindberg, C. Forsell, P. Jögi, and A.-K. Olsson, “Effects of dexamethasone on clinical course, C-reactive protein, S100B protein and von Willebrand factor antigen after paediatric cardiac surgery,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 728–732, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Ando, I.-S. Park, N. Wada, and Y. Takahashi, “Steroid supplementation: a legitimate pharmacotherapy after neonatal open heart surgery,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 1672–1678, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. Dreher, A. C. Glatz, A. Kennedy, T. Rosenthal, and J. W. Gaynor, “A single-center analysis of methylprednisolone use during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass,” The Journal of Extra-Corporeal Technology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 155–159, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  69. J. Keski-Nisula, E. Pesonen, K. T. Olkkola et al., “Methylprednisolone in neonatal cardiac surgery: reduced inflammation without improved clinical outcome,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 2126–2132, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. K. Pasquali, M. Hall, J. S. Li et al., “Corticosteroids and outcome in children undergoing congenital heart surgery: analysis of the pediatric health information systems database,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 21, pp. 2123–2130, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. K. Pasquali, J. S. Li, X. He et al., “Perioperative methylprednisolone and outcome in neonates undergoing heart surgery,” Pediatrics, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. e385–e391, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. S. Robertson-Malt, B. Afrane, and M. El Barbary, “Prophylactic steroids for pediatric open heart surgery,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 4, Article ID CD005550, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Robertson-Malt and M. El Barbary, “Prophylactic steroids for paediatric open-heart surgery: a systematic review,” International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 391–395, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. P. Whitlock, P. J. Devereaux, K. H. Teoh et al., “Methylprednisolone in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (SIRS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 386, no. 10000, pp. 1243–1253, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. K. Ito, K. F. Chung, and I. M. Adcock, “Update on glucocorticoid action and resistance,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 522–543, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. G. Valen, T. Kawakami, P. Tähepôld et al., “Pretreatment with methylprednisolone protects the isolated rat heart against ischaemic and oxidative damage,” Free Radical Research, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 31–43, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. I. M. Adcock and P. J. Barnes, “Molecular mechanisms of corticosteroid resistance,” Chest, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 394–401, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. E. Withington, P. S. Fontela, K. P. Harrington, C. Tchervenkov, and L. C. Lands, “A comparison of three dose timings of methylprednisolone in infant cardiopulmonary bypass,” SpringerPlus, vol. 3, article 484, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. Costantini, V. Marasco, A. P. Møller, and D. Costantini, “A meta-analysis of glucocorticoids as modulators of oxidative stress in vertebrates,” Journal of Comparative Physiology B, vol. 181, no. 4, pp. 447–456, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. J.-M. You, S. Yun, K. N. Nam, C. Kang, R. Won, and E. H. Lee, “Mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress in rat hippocampal slice cultures,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 440–447, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. C. Behl, F. Lezoualc'h, T. Trapp, M. Widmann, T. Skutella, and F. Holsboer, “Glucocorticoids enhance oxidative stress-induced cell death in hippocampal neurons in vitro,” Endocrinology, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 101–106, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. P. Yeager, P. A. Pioli, and P. M. Guyre, “Cortisol exerts bi-phasic regulation of inflammation in humans,” Dose-Response, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 332–347, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. P. Yeager, A. J. Rassias, P. A. Pioli et al., “Pretreatment with stress cortisol enhances the human systemic inflammatory response to bacterial endotoxin,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 2727–2732, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. D. H. Berkowitz and J. W. Gaynor, “Management of pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass,” in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, C. Mavroudis, C. Backer, and R. F. Idriss, Eds., chapter 10, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 4th edition, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. W.-J. van Boven, W. B. Gerritsen, F. G. Waanders, F. J. Haas, and L. P. Aarts, “Mini extracorporeal circuit for coronary artery bypass grafting: initial clinical and biochemical results: a comparison with conventional and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafts concerning global oxidative stress and alveolar function,” Perfusion, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 239–246, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. K. Miyaji, T. Miyamoto, S. Kohira et al., “Miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass system in neonates and small infants,” Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 75–78, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. K. Itatani, K. Miyaji, T. Miyamoto et al., “Miniaturized biocompatible cardiopulmonary bypass for the Fontan procedure,” Surgery Today, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1040–1045, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. D. J. Chambers, G. Astras, A. Takahashi, A. S. Manning, M. V. Braimbridge, and D. J. Hearse, “Free radicals and cardioplegia: organic anti-oxidants as additives to the St Thomas' hospital cardioplegic solution,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 351–358, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. D. T. Greenfield, L. J. Greenfield, and M. L. Hess, “Enhancement of crystalloid cardioplegic protection against global normothermic ischemia by superoxide dismutase plus catalase but not diltiazem in the isolated, working rat heart,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 799–813, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. E. R. Rosenkranz, “Substrate enhancement of cardioplegic solution: experimental studies and clinical evaluation,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 797–800, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. Vento, A. Nemlander, J. Aittomäki, J. Salo, J. Karhunen, and O. J. Rämö, “NAcetylcysteine as an additive to crystalloid cardioplegia increased oxidative stress capacity in CABG patients,” Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 349–355, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. Ferreira, M. Burgos, S. Llesuy et al., “Reduction of reperfusion injury with mannitol cardioplegia,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 77–83, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. Larsen, G. Webb, S. Kennington et al., “Mannitol in cardioplegia as an oxygen free radical scavenger measured by malondialdehyde,” Perfusion, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 51–55, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M.-S. Suleiman, H. C. Fernando, W. C. Dihmis, J. A. Hutter, and R. A. Chapman, “A loss of taurine and other amino acids from ventricles of patients undergoing bypass surgery,” Heart, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 241–245, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. D. T. Andrews, J. Sutherland, P. Dawson, A. G. Royse, and C. F. Royse, “L-arginine cardioplegia reduces oxidative stress and preserves diastolic function in patients with low ejection fraction undergoing coronary artery surgery,” Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 99–106, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. P. Julia, H. H. Young, G. D. Buckberg, E. R. Kofsky, and H. I. Bugyi, “Studies of myocardial protection in the immature heart. IV. Improved tolerance of immature myocardium to hypoxia and ischemia by intravenous metabolic support,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. G. J. Quinlan, S. T. Westerman, S. Mumby, J. R. Pepper, and J. M. C. Gutteridge, “Plasma hypoxanthine levels during crystalloid and blood cardioplegias: warm blood cardioplegia increases hypoxanthine levels with a greater risk of oxidative stress,” Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 65–69, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. A. Mezzetti, A. M. Calafiore, D. Lapenna et al., “Intermittent antegrade warm cardioplegia reduces oxidative stress and improves metabolism of the ischemic-reperfused human myocardium,” The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 787–795, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. J. S. Molicki, A. M. Draaisma, N. Verbeet et al., “Prime solutions for cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates: antioxidant capacity of prime based on albumin or fresh frozen plasma,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 449–456, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. K. Ihnken, K. Morita, G. D. Buckberg, O. Ihnken, B. Winkelmann, and M. Sherman, “Prevention of reoxygenation injury in hypoxaemic immature hearts by priming the extracorporeal circuit with antioxidants,” Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 608–619, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus