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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 4010357, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4010357
Review Article

Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

1Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
2ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
3Molecular and Environmental Biology Centre (CBMA), Department of Biology, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal

Received 24 April 2015; Revised 23 July 2015; Accepted 28 July 2015

Academic Editor: Eric E. Kelley

Copyright © 2016 Júlia Santos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health.