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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 7420637, 18 pages
Review Article

Relationship between Oxidative Stress, Circadian Rhythms, and AMD

1Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de México, DF, Mexico
2Posgrado en Ciencias Cognitivas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Humanidades, UAEM, Avenida Universidad No. 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, MOR, Mexico

Received 7 September 2015; Revised 24 October 2015; Accepted 26 October 2015

Academic Editor: Paola Venditti

Copyright © 2016 María Luisa Fanjul-Moles and Germán Octavio López-Riquelme. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This work reviews concepts regarding oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which endogenous and exogenous factors produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also surveys the relationships between oxidative stress, circadian rhythms, and retinal damage in humans, particularly those related to light and photodamage. In the first section, the production of ROS by different cell organelles and biomolecules and the antioxidant mechanisms that antagonize this damage are reviewed. The second section includes a brief review of circadian clocks and their relationship with the cellular redox state. In the third part of this work, the relationship between retinal damage and ROS is described. The last part of this work focuses on retinal degenerative pathology, age-related macular degeneration, and the relationships between this pathology, ROS, and light. Finally, the possible interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), circadian rhythms, and this pathology are discussed.