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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7909380, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7909380
Review Article

Is Modulation of Oxidative Stress an Answer? The State of the Art of Redox Therapeutic Actions in Neurodegenerative Diseases

1School of Medicine and Center of Integrated Research, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Rome, Italy
2European Center for Brain Research (CERC), Laboratory of Neurochemistry of Lipids, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy
3European Center for Brain Research (CERC), Laboratory of Neurogenetics, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy
4Department of System Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy

Received 12 August 2015; Accepted 18 October 2015

Academic Editor: Liudmila Korkina

Copyright © 2016 Valerio Chiurchiù et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The central nervous system is particularly sensitive to oxidative stress due to many reasons, including its high oxygen consumption even under basal conditions, high production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species from specific neurochemical reactions, and the increased deposition of metal ions in the brain with aging. For this reason, along with inflammation, oxidative stress seems to be one of the main inducers of neurodegeneration, causing excitotoxicity, neuronal loss, and axonal damage, ultimately being now considered a key element in the onset and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and hereditary spastic paraplegia. Thus, the present paper reviews the role of oxidative stress and of its mechanistic insights underlying the pathogenesis of these neurodegenerative diseases, with particular focus on current studies on its modulation as a potential and promising therapeutic strategy.