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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 8254942, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8254942
Review Article

The Role of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Injury and Protective Strategies

1Department of Pathophysiology, Victor Babeș University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2 Eftimie Murgu Square, 300041 Timișoara, Romania
2Center for Translational Research and Systems Medicine, Victor Babeș University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2 Eftimie Murgu Square, 300041 Timișoara, Romania
3Department of Cardiology-2nd Cardiology Clinic, Victor Babeș University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2 Eftimie Murgu Square, 300041 Timișoara, Romania

Received 21 February 2016; Revised 29 March 2016; Accepted 30 March 2016

Academic Editor: Mohanraj Rajesh

Copyright © 2016 Danina M. Muntean et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the heart represents a major health burden mainly associated with acute coronary syndromes. While timely coronary reperfusion has become the established routine therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the restoration of blood flow into the previously ischaemic area is always accompanied by myocardial injury. The central mechanism involved in this phenomenon is represented by the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides their harmful role when highly generated during early reperfusion, minimal ROS formation during ischaemia and/or at reperfusion is critical for the redox signaling of cardioprotection. In the past decades, mitochondria have emerged as the major source of ROS as well as a critical target for cardioprotective strategies at reperfusion. Mitochondria dysfunction associated with I/R myocardial injury is further described and ultimately analyzed with respect to its role as source of both deleterious and beneficial ROS. Furthermore, the contribution of ROS in the highly investigated field of conditioning strategies is analyzed. In the end, the vascular sources of mitochondria-derived ROS are briefly reviewed.