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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8360738, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8360738
Research Article

AP39, a Mitochondria-Targeted Hydrogen Sulfide Donor, Supports Cellular Bioenergetics and Protects against Alzheimer’s Disease by Preserving Mitochondrial Function in APP/PS1 Mice and Neurons

1Experimental Research Center, Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
2Department of Neurology, The University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China

Received 10 November 2015; Revised 11 December 2015; Accepted 15 December 2015

Academic Editor: David Sebastián

Copyright © 2016 Feng-li Zhao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial functions are altered in AD and play an important role in AD pathogenesis. It has been established that H2S homeostasis is balanced in AD. The emerging mitochondrial roles of H2S include antioxidation, antiapoptosis, and the modulation of cellular bioenergetics. Here, using primary neurons from the well-characterized APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model, we studied the effects of AP39 (a newly synthesized mitochondrially targeted H2S donor) on mitochondrial function. AP39 increased intracellular H2S levels, mainly in mitochondrial regions. AP39 exerted dose-dependent effects on mitochondrial activity in APP/PS1 neurons, including increased cellular bioenergy metabolism and cell viability at low concentrations (25–100 nM) and decreased energy production and cell viability at a high concentration (250 nM). Furthermore, AP39 (100 nM) increased ATP levels, protected mitochondrial DNA, and decreased ROS generation. AP39 regulated mitochondrial dynamics, shifting from fission toward fusion. After 6 weeks, AP39 administration to APP/PS1 mice significantly ameliorated their spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze and NORT and reduced Aβ deposition in their brains. Additionally, AP39 inhibited brain atrophy in APP/PS1 mice. Based on these results, AP39 was proposed as a promising drug candidate for AD treatment, and its anti-AD mechanism may involve protection against mitochondrial damage.