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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 8590578, 15 pages
Review Article

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and Huntington’s Disease: A Mini Review

1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, India
2Neuroinflammation Group, Department of Biomedical Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia
3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
4SMPT, NIAAA, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, USA

Received 8 July 2016; Revised 6 October 2016; Accepted 13 November 2016

Academic Editor: Rodrigo Franco

Copyright © 2016 Shanmugam Manoharan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Neurodegenerative diseases affect not only the life quality of aging populations, but also their life spans. All forms of neurodegenerative diseases have a massive impact on the elderly. The major threat of these brain diseases includes progressive loss of memory, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), impairments in the movement, Parkinson’s disease (PD), and the inability to walk, talk, and think, Huntington’s disease (HD). Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are highlighted as a central feature of brain degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress, a condition that occurs due to imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant status, has been known to play a vital role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases including AD, PD, and HD. A large number of studies have utilized oxidative stress biomarkers to investigate the severity of these neurodegenerative diseases and medications are available, but these only treat the symptoms. In traditional medicine, a large number of medicinal plants have been used to treat the symptoms of these neurodegenerative diseases. Extensive studies scientifically validated the beneficial effect of natural products against neurodegenerative diseases using suitable animal models. This short review focuses the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AD, PD, and HD and the protective efficacy of natural products against these diseases.