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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 8923860, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8923860
Research Article

Nrf2/ARE Pathway Involved in Oxidative Stress Induced by Paraquat in Human Neural Progenitor Cells

School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China

Received 11 June 2015; Accepted 8 July 2015

Academic Editor: Michela Battistelli

Copyright © 2016 Tingting Dou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Compelling evidences have shown that diverse environmental insults arising during early life can either directly lead to a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons or cause an increased susceptibility to neurons degeneration with subsequent environmental insults or with aging alone. Oxidative stress is considered the main effect of neurotoxins exposure. In this study, we investigated the oxidative stress effect of Paraquat (PQ) on immortalized human embryonic neural progenitor cells by treating them with various concentrations of PQ. We show that PQ can decrease the activity of SOD and CAT but increase MDA and LDH level. Furthermore, the activities of Cyc and caspase-9 were found increased significantly at 10 μM of PQ treatment. The cytoplasmic Nrf2 protein expressions were upregulated at 10 μM but fell back at 100 μM. The nuclear Nrf2 protein expressions were upregulated as well as the downstream mRNA expressions of HO-1 and NQO1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the proteins expression of PKC and CKII was also increased significantly even at 1 μM. The results suggested that Nrf2/ARE pathway is involved in mild to moderate PQ-induced oxidative stress which is evident from dampened Nrf2 activity and low expression of antioxidant genes in PQ induced oxidative damage.