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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9209825, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9209825
Research Article

Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

1Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 México, DF, Mexico
2Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México, DF, Mexico
3Red Fisiopatología de las Enfermedades Hepáticas, PRODEP-SEP, México, DF, Mexico

Received 23 July 2015; Accepted 15 September 2015

Academic Editor: Karina R. Gordillo

Copyright © 2016 Anayelly López-Islas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.