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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 9875298, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9875298
Review Article

Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Lesions in Ulcerative Colitis and Associated Colorectal Cancer

1Department of Pharmacology, Division of Stem Cell Regulation and Application, State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Powder and Medicine Innovation in Hunan (Incubation), and Key Laboratory of Colleges and Universities in Hunan Province for Cytobiology and Molecular Biotechnology, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan 410208, China
2Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology & Cell Biology, Simmons Cancer Institute, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 913 N. Rutledge Street, Springfield, IL 62794, USA

Received 3 June 2015; Revised 14 October 2015; Accepted 25 October 2015

Academic Editor: Lokesh Deb

Copyright © 2016 Zhiqi Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress has long been known as a pathogenic factor of ulcerative colitis (UC) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC), but the effects of secondary carbonyl lesions receive less emphasis. In inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion free radical (), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (), are produced at high levels and accumulated to cause oxidative stress (OS). In oxidative status, accumulated ROS can cause protein dysfunction and DNA damage, leading to gene mutations and cell death. Accumulated ROS could also act as chemical messengers to activate signaling pathways, such as NF-κB and p38 MAPK, to affect cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. More importantly, electrophilic carbonyl compounds produced by lipid peroxidation may function as secondary pathogenic factors, causing further protein and membrane lesions. This may in turn exaggerate oxidative stress, forming a vicious cycle. Electrophilic carbonyls could also cause DNA mutations and breaks, driving malignant progression of UC. The secondary lesions caused by carbonyl compounds may be exceptionally important in the case of host carbonyl defensive system deficit, such as aldo-keto reductase 1B10 deficiency. This review article updates the current understanding of oxidative stress and carbonyl lesions in the development and progression of UC and CAC.