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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 3187594, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3187594
Review Article

Sirtuins Expression and Their Role in Retinal Diseases

1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, 580 W. 8th Street, Tower-2, Jacksonville, FL 32209, USA
2The Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA
3Glaucoma Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11424, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Sankarathi Balaiya; moc.liamg@lfu.gbs and Kakarla V. Chalam; moc.loa@malahcvk

Received 26 September 2016; Accepted 13 December 2016; Published 19 January 2017

Academic Editor: Yuhei Nishimura

Copyright © 2017 Sankarathi Balaiya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sirtuins have received considerable attention since the discovery that silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) extends the lifespan of yeast. Sir2, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- (NAD-) dependent histone deacetylase, serves as both a transcriptional effector and energy sensor. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative eye diseases. Sirtuins confer protection against oxidative stress and retinal degeneration. In mammals, the sirtuin (SIRT) family consists of seven proteins (SIRT1–SIRT7). These vary in tissue specificity, subcellular localization, and enzymatic activity and targets. In this review, we present the current knowledge of the sirtuin family and discuss their structure, cellular location, and biological function with a primary focus on their role in different neuroophthalmic diseases including glaucoma, optic neuritis, and age-related macular degeneration. The potential role of certain therapeutic targets is also described.