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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 3759287, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3759287
Research Article

Oxidative Stress as a Physiological Pain Response in Full-Term Newborns

Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to S. Perrone

Received 1 August 2016; Revised 29 November 2016; Accepted 7 December 2016; Published 4 January 2017

Academic Editor: Francisco J. Romero

Copyright © 2017 S. Perrone et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This research paper aims to investigate if oxidative stress biomarkers increase after a painful procedure in term newborns and if nonpharmacological approaches, or sex, influence pain degree, and the subsequent OS. 83 healthy term newborns were enrolled to receive 10% oral glucose or sensorial saturation (SS) for analgesia during heel prick (HP). The ABC scale was used to score the pain. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and total hydroperoxides (TH) as biomarkers of OS were measured at the beginning (early-sample) and at the end (late-sample) of HP. The early-sample/late-sample ratio for AOPP and TH was used to evaluate the increase in OS biomarkers after HP. Higher levels of both AOPP and TH ratio were observed in high degree pain (4–6) compared with low degree pain score (0–3) (AOPP: ; TH: ). Newborns receiving SS showed a significantly lower pain score () and AOPP ratio levels () than those without. Males showed higher TH levels at the end of HP () compared to females. The current study demonstrates that a relationship between pain degree and OS exists in healthy full-term newborns. The amount of OS is gender related, being higher in males. SS reduces pain score together with pain-related OS in the newborns.