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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 3940241, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3940241
Review Article

Ischemic Retinopathies: Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

1Department of Ophthalmology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada
2Department of Pediatrics, Ophthalmology and Pharmacology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montréal, QC, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to José Carlos Rivera; ac.laertnomu@arevir.cj and Sylvain Chemtob; ac.laertnomu@botmehc.niavlys

Received 17 September 2017; Accepted 20 November 2017; Published 19 December 2017

Academic Editor: Alexandra S. Latini

Copyright © 2017 José Carlos Rivera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ischemic retinopathies (IRs), such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and (in many cases) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are ocular disorders characterized by an initial phase of microvascular changes that results in ischemia, followed by a second phase of abnormal neovascularization that may culminate into retinal detachment and blindness. IRs are complex retinal conditions in which several factors play a key role during the development of the different pathological stages of the disease. Increasing evidence reveals that oxidative stress and inflammatory processes are important contributors to the pathogenesis of IRs. Despite the beneficial effects of the photocoagulation and anti-VEGF therapy during neovascularization phase, the need to identify novel targets to prevent initial phases of these ocular pathologies is still needed. In this review, we provide an update on the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in the progression of IRs and address some therapeutic interventions by using antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.