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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 5716409, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5716409
Review Article

Protein Posttranslational Modifications: Roles in Aging and Age-Related Disease

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1001, Université Paris Descartes and Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Ana L. Santos; rf.mresni@sotnas.ana

Received 3 April 2017; Accepted 28 May 2017; Published 15 August 2017

Academic Editor: Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz

Copyright © 2017 Ana L. Santos and Ariel B. Lindner. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aging is characterized by the progressive decline of biochemical and physiological function in an individual. Consequently, aging is a major risk factor for diseases like cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging are not well understood, nor is the relationship between aging and the onset of diseases. One of the hallmarks of aging is a decrease in cellular proteome homeostasis, allowing abnormal proteins to accumulate. This phenomenon is observed in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, suggesting that the underlying molecular processes are evolutionarily conserved. Similar protein aggregation occurs in the pathogenesis of diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Further, protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), either spontaneous or physiological/pathological, are emerging as important markers of aging and aging-related diseases, though clear causality has not yet been firmly established. This review presents an overview of the interplay of PTMs in aging-associated molecular processes in eukaryotic aging models. Understanding PTM roles in aging could facilitate targeted therapies or interventions for age-related diseases. In addition, the study of PTMs in prokaryotes is highlighted, revealing the potential of simple prokaryotic models to uncover complex aging-associated molecular processes in the emerging field of microbiogerontology.