Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 7467962, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7467962
Review Article

Dietary Polyphenols in the Prevention of Stroke

1Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy, XaRTA, INSA-UB, School of Pharmacy and Food Science, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
2CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
3AZTI Tecnalia Food Research Division, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain
4INRA, UMR1083 Sciences pour l’œnologie, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex, France

Correspondence should be addressed to A. Vallverdú-Queralt; ude.bu@udrevllava

Received 8 June 2017; Accepted 4 October 2017; Published 24 October 2017

Academic Editor: Manuela Curcio

Copyright © 2017 A. Tressera-Rimbau et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Del Rio, A. Rodriguez-Mateos, J. P. E. Spencer, M. Tognolini, G. Borges, and A. Crozier, Dietary (Poly)phenolics in Human Health: Structures, Bioavailability, and Evidence of Protective Effects against Chronic Diseases, vol. 18, Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd FloorNew Rochelle, NY 10801 USA, 2013.
  2. R. M. Lamuela-Raventós, A. Vallverdú-Queralt, O. Jáuregui, M. Martínez-Huélamo, and P. Quifer-Rada, “Improved characterization of polyphenols using liquid chromatography,” Polyphenols in Plants, vol. 14, pp. 261–292, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Crozier, I. B. Jaganath, and M. N. Clifford, “Dietary phenolics: chemistry, bioavailability and effects on health,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1001–1043, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Vallverdú-Queralt, N. Boix, E. Piqué et al., “Identification of phenolic compounds in red wine extract samples and zebrafish embryos by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS,” Food Chemistry, vol. 181, pp. 146–151, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Frei and J. V. Higdon, “Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, no. 10, pp. 3275S–3284S, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  6. J. S. Bonita, M. Mandarano, D. Shuta, and J. Vinson, “Coffee and cardiovascular disease: in vitro, cellular, animal, and human studies,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 187–198, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Talhaoui, A. M. Gómez-Caravaca, L. León, R. De la Rosa, A. Fernández-Gutiérrez, and A. Segura-Carretero, “From olive fruits to olive oil: phenolic compound transfer in six different olive cultivars grown under the same agronomical conditions,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 17, no. 3, p. 337, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Visioli, H. Bernaert, R. Corti et al., “Chocolate, lifestyle, and health,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 299–312, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Rusconi and A. Conti, “Theobroma cacao L., the food of the gods: a scientific approach beyond myths and claims,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 5–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Vallverdú-Queralt, J. Regueiro, M. Martínez-Huélamo, J. F. R. Alvarenga, L. N. Leal, and R. M. Lamuela-Raventos, “A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay,” Food Chemistry, vol. 154, pp. 299–307, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Regueiro, C. Sánchez-González, A. Vallverdú-Queralt, J. Simal-Gándara, R. Lamuela-Raventós, and M. Izquierdo-Pulido, “Comprehensive identification of walnut polyphenols by liquid chromatography coupled to linear ion trap–Orbitrap mass spectrometry,” Food Chemistry, vol. 152, pp. 340–348, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. M. Lamuela-Raventos and P. Quifer-Rada, “Effect of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular risk,” Hear, vol. 102, no. 17, pp. 1340-1341, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Martínez-Huélamo, A. Vallverdú-Queralt, G. Di Lecce et al., “Bioavailability of tomato polyphenols is enhanced by processing and fat addition: evidence from a randomized feeding trial,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 1578–1589, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. F. Visioli, C. A. De La Lastra, C. Andres-Lacueva et al., “Polyphenols and human health: a prospectus,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 524–546, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Bolca, T. Van de Wiele, and S. Possemiers, “Gut metabotypes govern health effects of dietary polyphenols,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 220–225, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Medina-Remon, R. Estruch, A. Tresserra-Rimbau, A. Vallverdú-Queralt, and R. M. Lamuela-Raventos, “The effect of polyphenol consumption on blood pressure,” Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1137–1149, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. C. de Camargo, M. A. B. Regitano-d’Arce, A. C. T. Biasoto, and F. Shahidi, “Low molecular weight phenolics of grape juice and winemaking byproducts: antioxidant activities and inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and DNA strand breakage,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 62, no. 50, pp. 12159–12171, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Denny, J. G. Lazarini, M. Franchin et al., “Bioprospection of Petit Verdot grape pomace as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds,” Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 8, pp. 292–300, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. L. Millar, Q. Duclos, and C. N. Blesso, “Effects of dietary flavonoids on reverse cholesterol transport, HDL metabolism, and HDL function,” Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 226–239, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. Á. Hernáez, S. Fernández-Castillejo, M. Farràs et al., “Olive oil polyphenols enhance high-density lipoprotein function in humans: a randomized controlled trial,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2115–2119, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Hernaez, A. T. Remaley, M. Farras et al., “Olive oil polyphenols decrease LDL concentrations and LDL atherogenicity in men in a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 145, no. 8, pp. 1692–1697, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Chiva-Blanch, E. Magraner, X. Condines et al., “Effects of alcohol and polyphenols from beer on atherosclerotic biomarkers in high cardiovascular risk men: a randomized feeding trial,” Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 36–45, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. I. P. G. Botden, J. G. Langendonk, M. E. Meima et al., “Daily red wine consumption improves vascular function by a soluble guanylyl cyclase-dependent pathway,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 162–168, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. P. Botden, R. Draijer, B. E. Westerhof et al., “Red wine polyphenols do not lower peripheral or central blood pressure in high normal blood pressure and hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 718–723, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. W. Droste, C. Iliescu, M. Vaillant et al., “A daily glass of red wine associated with lifestyle changes independently improves blood lipids in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis: results from a randomized controlled trial,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 147, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Siasos, D. Tousoulis, E. Kokkou et al., “Favorable effects of concord grape juice on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in healthy smokers,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Steptoe, E. L. Gibson, R. Vuononvirta et al., “The effects of tea on psychophysiological stress responsivity and post-stress recovery: a randomised double-blind trial,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 190, no. 1, p. 91, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. L. Noad, C. Rooney, D. McCall et al., “Beneficial effect of a polyphenol-rich diet on cardiovascular risk: a randomised control trial,” Heart, vol. 102, no. 17, pp. 1371–1379, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Medina-Remón, A. Tresserra-Rimbau, A. Pons et al., “Effects of total dietary polyphenols on plasma nitric oxide and blood pressure in a high cardiovascular risk cohort. The PREDIMED randomized trial,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 60–67, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. X. Guo, A. Tresserra-Rimbau, R. Estruch et al., “Effects of polyphenol, measured by a biomarker of total polyphenols in urine, on cardiovascular risk factors after a long-term follow-up in the PREDIMED study,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2016, Article ID 2572606, 11 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. Abbott and F. Sim, in Unit: Public Health Aspects of Stroke Workbook, pp. 1–33, Lorraine Williams and Fiona Sim, London, 2010.
  32. R. Wittenauer and L. Smith, Priority Medicines for Europe and the World “A Public Health Approach to Innovation”. Background Paper 6.6. Ischaemic and Haemorrhagic Stroke, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.
  33. The World Health Organization, The Top 10 Causes of Death, 2017.
  34. U. Gundimeda, T. H. McNeill, B. A. Barseghian et al., “Polyphenols from green tea prevent antineuritogenic action of Nogo-A via 67-kDa laminin receptor and hydrogen peroxide,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 70–84, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. S. Panickar, B. Qin, and R. A. Anderson, “Ischemia-induced endothelial cell swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction are attenuated by cinnamtannin D1, green tea extract, and resveratrol in vitro,” Nutritional Neuroscience, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 297–306, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Doré, “Unique properties of polyphenol stilbenes in the brain: more than direct antioxidant actions; gene/protein regulatory activity,” Neurosignals, vol. 14, no. 1-2, pp. 61–70, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. R. Campos-Esparza, M. V. Sánchez-Gómez, and C. Matute, “Molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection by two natural antioxidant polyphenols,” Cell Calcium, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 358–368, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. V. Spigoni, P. Mena, M. Cito et al., “Effects on nitric oxide production of urolithins, gut-derived ellagitannin metabolites, in human aortic endothelial cells,” Molecules, vol. 21, no. 8, p. 1009, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. Campiani, C. Fattorusso, M. De Angelis et al., “Neuronal high-affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters (EAATs): targets for the development of novel therapeutics against neurodegenerative diseases,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 599–625, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  40. A. C. Bowling and M. F. Beal, “Bioenergetic and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases,” Life Sciences, vol. 56, no. 14, pp. 1151–1171, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. T. Abib, A. Quincozes-Santos, P. Nardin et al., “Epicatechin gallate increases glutamate uptake and S100B secretion in C6 cell lineage,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 310, no. 1, pp. 153–158, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Virgili, H. Kobuchi, and L. Packer, “Procyanidins extracted from Pinus maritima (Pycnogenol®): scavengers of free radical species and modulators of nitrogen monoxide metabolism in activated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 24, no. 7-8, pp. 1120–1129, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Kuriyama, T. Shimazu, K. Ohmori et al., “Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in Japan: the Ohsaki study,” JAMA, vol. 296, no. 10, pp. 1255–1265, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. J. Mink, C. G. Scrafford, L. M. Barraj et al., “Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 895–909, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  45. P. E. Szmitko and S. Verma, “Cardiology patient pages. Red wine and your heart,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. e10–e11, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. I. C. Arts, P. C. Hollman, E. J. Feskens, H. B. Bueno de Mesquita, and D. Kromhout, “Catechin intake might explain the inverse relation between tea consumption and ischemic heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 227–232, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  47. G. D. Norata, P. Marchesi, S. Passamonti, A. Pirillo, F. Violi, and A. L. Catapano, “Anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects of cathechin, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol in apolipoprotein E deficient mice,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 265–271, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J.-W. Park, J.-S. Hong, K.-S. Lee, H.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Lee, and S.-R. Lee, “Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity following transient focal cerebral ischemia,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1038–1044, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Ashafaq, S. S. Raza, M. M. Khan et al., “Catechin hydrate ameliorates redox imbalance and limits inflammatory response in focal cerebral ischemia,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1747–1760, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Han, M. Wang, X. Jing, H. Shi, M. Ren, and H. Lou, “(−)-Epigallocatechin gallate protects against cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative stress via Nrf2/ARE signaling,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1292–1299, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Y.-P. You, “Epigallocatechin gallate extends the therapeutic window of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment in ischemic rats,” Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 990–997, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J.-K. Lee, H.-J. Kwak, M.-S. Piao, J.-W. Jang, S.-H. Kim, and H.-S. Kim, “Quercetin reduces the elevated matrix metalloproteinases-9 level and improves functional outcome after cerebral focal ischemia in rats,” Acta Neurochirurgica, vol. 153, no. 6, pp. 1321–1329, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. X. Lin, C.-H. Lin, T. Zhao et al., “Quercetin protects against heat stroke-induced myocardial injury in male rats: antioxidative and antiinflammatory mechanisms,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 265, pp. 47–54, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. F. Perez-Vizcaino, J. Duarte, and R. Andriantsitohaina, “Endothelial function and cardiovascular disease: effects of quercetin and wine polyphenols,” Free Radical Research, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 1054–1065, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. M. Khan, A. Ahmad, T. Ishrat et al., “Rutin protects the neural damage induced by transient focal ischemia in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1292, pp. 123–135, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Simonyi, Q. Wang, R. Miller et al., “Polyphenols in cerebral ischemia: novel targets for neuroprotection,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 31, no. 1–3, pp. 135–147, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Yousuf, F. Atif, M. Ahmad et al., “Resveratrol exerts its neuroprotective effect by modulating mitochondrial dysfunctions and associated cell death during cerebral ischemia,” Brain Research, vol. 1250, pp. 242–253, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. A. Baur and D. A. Sinclair, “Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 493–506, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T. Wallerath, G. Deckert, T. Ternes et al., “Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine, enhances expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 13, pp. 1652–1658, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Q. Wang, A. Simonyi, W. Li et al., “Dietary grape supplement ameliorates cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal death in gerbils,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 443–451, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. C. Ramirez-Tortosa, M. D. Mesa, M. C. Aguilera et al., “Oral administration of a turmeric extract inhibits LDL oxidation and has hypocholesterolemic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 371–378, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Ramaswami, H. Chai, Q. Yao, P. H. Lin, A. B. Lumsden, and C. Chen, “Curcumin blocks homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1216–1222, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D. Del Rio, G. Borges, and A. Crozier, “Berry flavonoids and phenolics: bioavailability and evidence of protective effects,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 104, Supplement 3, pp. S67–S90, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Basu, M. Rhone, and T. J. Lyons, “Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 168–177, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. X. Wu, J. Kang, C. Xie et al., “Dietary blueberries attenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzyme expression,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 140, no. 9, pp. 1628–1632, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M.-F. Ritz, Y. Curin, A. Mendelowitsch, and R. Andriantsitohaina, “Acute treatment with red wine polyphenols protects from ischemia-induced excitotoxicity, energy failure and oxidative stress in rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1239, pp. 226–234, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M.-I. Covas, R. de la Torre, and M. Fito, “Virgin olive oil: a key food for cardiovascular risk protection,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 113, Supplement 2, pp. S19–S28, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. P. De La Cruz, M. A. Villalobos, J. A. Carmona, M. Martin-Romero, J. M. Smith-Agreda, and F. S. de la Cuesta, “Antithrombotic potential of olive oil administration in rabbits with elevated cholesterol,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 305–315, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Gonzalez-Santiago, E. Martin-Bautista, J. J. Carrero et al., “One-month administration of hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic antioxidant present in olive oil, to hyperlipemic rabbits improves blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and reduces atherosclerosis development,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. Manna, V. Migliardi, P. Golino et al., “Oleuropein prevents oxidative myocardial injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 461–466, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. I. C. W. Arts and P. C. H. Hollman, “Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, Supplement 1, pp. 317S–325S, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  72. F. J. He, C. A. Nowson, and G. A. MacGregor, “Fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies,” The Lancet, vol. 367, no. 9507, pp. 320–326, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. E. Saita, K. Kondo, and Y. Momiyama, “Anti-inflammatory diet for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease: antioxidant foods,” Clinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology, vol. 8, Supplement 3, pp. 61–65, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. M. Pinder and M. Sandler, “Alcohol, wine and mental health: focus on dementia and stroke,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 449–456, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. G. de Gaetano, S. Costanzo, A. Di Castelnuovo et al., “Effects of moderate beer consumption on health and disease: a consensus document,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 443–467, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. Di Castelnuovo, S. Costanzo, R. di Giuseppe, G. de Gaetano, and L. Iacoviello, “Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk: mechanisms of action and epidemiologic perspectives,” Future Cardiology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 467–477, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. Ferrières, “The French paradox: lessons for other countries,” Heart, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 107–111, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. V. Neveu, J. Perez-Jiménez, F. Vos et al., “Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods,” Database, vol. 2010, article bap024, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. A. Tresserra-Rimbau, A. Medina-Remón, J. Pérez-Jiménez et al., “Dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in a Spanish population at high cardiovascular risk: the PREDIMED study,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 953–959, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Pérez-Jiménez, L. Fezeu, M. Touvier et al., “Dietary intake of 337 polyphenols in French adults,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 1220–1228, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. Godos, S. Marventano, A. Mistretta, F. Galvano, and G. Grosso, “Dietary sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy eating, aging and lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort,” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 750–756, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. D. Bonnefont-Rousselot, “Resveratrol and cardiovascular diseases,” Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 5, p. 250, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. T. Truelsen, M. Gronbaek, P. Schnohr, and G. Boysen, “Intake of beer, wine, and spirits and risk of stroke: the Copenhagen City Heart Study,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2467–2472, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. L. Djoussé, J. J. Himali, A. Beiser, M. Kelly-Hayes, and P. A. Wolf, “Apolipoprotein E, alcohol consumption, and risk of ischemic stroke: the Framingham Heart Study revisited,” Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 384–388, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. K. J. Mukamal, A. Ascherio, M. A. Mittleman et al., “Alcohol and risk for ischemic stroke in men: the role of drinking patterns and usual beverage,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. K. J. Mukamal, H. Chung, N. S. Jenny et al., “Alcohol use and risk of ischemic stroke among older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study,” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1830–1834, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. C. Larsson and N. Orsini, “Coffee consumption and risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 174, no. 9, pp. 993–1001, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. N. D. Freedman, Y. Park, C. C. Abnet, A. R. Hollenbeck, and R. Sinha, “Association of coffee drinking with total and cause-specific mortality,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 20, pp. 1891–1904, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. Floegel, T. Pischon, M. M. Bergmann, B. Teucher, R. Kaaks, and H. Boeing, “Coffee consumption and risk of chronic disease in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 901–908, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. Y. Kokubo, H. Iso, I. Saito et al., “The impact of green tea and coffee consumption on the reduced risk of stroke incidence in Japanese population: the Japan public health center-based study cohort,” Stroke, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1369–1374, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. C. Larsson, “Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke,” Stroke, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 309–314, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. C. Larsson, J. Virtamo, and A. Wolk, “Black tea consumption and risk of stroke in women and men,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 157–160, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. C. Larsson, J. Virtamo, and A. Wolk, “Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke: a prospective cohort of men and meta-analysis,” Neurology, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1223–1229, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. K. S. Panickar, “Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function,” Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 13–29, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. L. Bertoia, E. B. Rimm, K. J. Mukamal, F. B. Hu, W. C. Willett, and A. Cassidy, “Dietary flavonoid intake and weight maintenance: three prospective cohorts of 124,086 US men and women followed for up to 24 years,” BMJ, vol. 352, p. i17, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Wang, J. Liu, and R. Lin, “Effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol: a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, article e107711, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. Y. Zhao, S. Asimi, K. Wu, J. Zheng, and D. Li, “Black tea consumption and serum cholesterol concentration: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 612–619, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. Khalesi, J. Sun, N. Buys, A. Jamshidi, E. Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, and H. Khosravi-Boroujeni, “Green tea catechins and blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1299–1311, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. A. Kim, A. Chiu, M. K. Barone et al., “Green tea catechins decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 111, no. 11, pp. 1720–1729, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. X.-X. Zheng, X. Y-L, S.-H. Li, X.-X. Liu, R. Hui, and X.-H. Huang, “Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 601–610, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. O. A. Tokede, J. M. Gaziano, and L. Djousse, “Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 879–886, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. L. Jia, X. Liu, Y. Y. Bai et al., “Short-term effect of cocoa product consumption on lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 218–225, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. R. Estruch, E. Ros, J. Salas-Salvadó et al., “Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 368, no. 14, pp. 1279–1290, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. Tresserra-Rimbau, E. B. Rimm, A. Medina-Remón et al., “Inverse association between habitual polyphenol intake and incidence of cardiovascular events in the PREDIMED study,” Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 639–647, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. S. O. Keli, M. G. Hertog, E. J. Feskens, and D. Kromhout, “Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 156, no. 6, pp. 637–642, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. P. Knekt, J. Kumpulainen, R. Järvinen et al., “Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 560–568, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  107. T. Hirvonen, J. Virtamo, P. Korhonen, D. Albanes, and P. Pietinen, “Intake of flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and risk of stroke in male smokers,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 2301–2306, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. L. Yochum, L. H. Kushi, K. Meyer, and A. R. Folsom, “Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 149, no. 10, pp. 943–949, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. Y. Curin and R. Andriantsitohaina, “Polyphenols as potential therapeutical agents against cardiovascular diseases,” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 57, pp. 97–107, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  110. J. Gonzalez-Gallego, M. V. Garcia-Mediavilla, S. Sanchez-Campos, and M. J. Tunon, “Fruit polyphenols, immunity and inflammation,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 104, Supplement 3, pp. S15–S27, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus