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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 7908072, 18 pages
Research Article

Alleviation of Oxidative Damage and Involvement of Nrf2-ARE Pathway in Mesodopaminergic System and Hippocampus of Status Epilepticus Rats Pretreated by Intranasal Pentoxifylline

1Department of Neurobiology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017, China
2Department of Human Anatomy, Shijiazhuang Medical College, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050599, China
3Department of Human Anatomy, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017, China
4Department of Neurology, Children’s Hospital of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Geming Shi; moc.361@gnimegihs

Received 3 December 2016; Revised 6 February 2017; Accepted 21 February 2017; Published 12 March 2017

Academic Editor: Luciano Saso

Copyright © 2017 Yunxiao Kang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The current studies were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of intranasal pentoxifylline (Ptx) pretreatment in protecting mesodopaminergic system and hippocampus from oxidative damage of lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) and the involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2- (Nrf2-) antioxidant response elements pathway. Pentoxifylline was administered to rats intranasally or intraperitoneally 30 minutes before inducing SE. Our results showed the impaired visuospatial memory, the defected mesodopaminergic system, and the oxidative damage and the transient activation of Nrf2 in SE rats. The transient activation of Nrf2 in SE rats was enhanced by Ptx pretreatment, which was followed by the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1. Ptx pretreatment to SE rats significantly suppressed the epileptic seizures, decreased the levels of lipid peroxide and malondialdehyde, and elevated the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione. Compared with intraperitoneal injection, intranasal Ptx delivery completely restored the visuospatial memory and the activity of mesodopaminergic system in SE rats. Intranasal administration of Ptx may hopefully become a noninvasive, painless, and easily administered option for epileptic patients.