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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8210734, 18 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8210734
Review Article

The Central Role of Biometals Maintains Oxidative Balance in the Context of Metabolic and Neurodegenerative Disorders

1Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Biomedical Center Martin JFM CU, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia
2Department of Pathophysiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia

Correspondence should be addressed to Alžbeta Kráľová Trančíková

Received 24 February 2017; Revised 19 May 2017; Accepted 28 May 2017; Published 2 July 2017

Academic Editor: Rhian Touyz

Copyright © 2017 Michal Pokusa and Alžbeta Kráľová Trančíková. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Traditionally, oxidative stress as a biological aspect is defined as an imbalance between the free radical generation and antioxidant capacity of living systems. The intracellular imbalance of ions, disturbance in membrane dynamics, hypoxic conditions, and dysregulation of gene expression are all molecular pathogenic mechanisms closely associated with oxidative stress and underpin systemic changes in the body. These also include aspects such as chronic immune system activation, the impairment of cellular structure renewal, and alterations in the character of the endocrine secretion of diverse tissues. All of these mentioned features are crucial for the correct function of the various tissue types in the body. In the present review, we summarize current knowledge about the common roots of metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders induced by oxidative stress. We discuss these common roots with regard to the way that (1) the respective metal ions are involved in the maintenance of oxidative balance and (2) the metabolic and signaling disturbances of the most important biometals, such as Mg2+, Zn2+, Se2+, Fe2+, or Cu2+, can be considered as the central connection point between the pathogenesis of both types of disorders and oxidative stress.