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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 8356175, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8356175
Research Article

A Single Zidovudine (AZT) Administration Delays Hepatic Cell Proliferation by Altering Oxidative State in the Regenerating Rat Liver

1Departamento de Biología Celular y Desarrollo, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico
2Departamento de Neurodesarrollo y Fisiología, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico
3Departamento de Patología Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, 14080 Ciudad de México, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Rolando Hernández-Muñoz; xm.manu.cfi.oerroc@dnanrehr

Received 12 December 2016; Revised 1 February 2017; Accepted 21 February 2017; Published 5 April 2017

Academic Editor: Luciano Saso

Copyright © 2017 Armando Butanda-Ochoa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine or Zidovudine (AZT) was the first antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of HIV patients, which has good effectiveness but also hepatotoxic side effects that include cell cycle arrest and oxidative/nitrative mitochondrial damage. Whether such an oxidative damage may affect the proliferative-regenerative capacity of liver remains to be clearly specified at doses commonly used in the clinical practice. In this study, we described the oxidative-proliferative effect of AZT administered at a common clinical dose in rat liver submitted to 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). The results indicate that AZT significantly decreased DNA synthesis and the number of mitosis in liver subjected to PH in a synchronized way with the promotion of organelle-selective lipid peroxidation events (especially those observed in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions) and with liver enzyme release to the bloodstream. Then at the dose used in clinical practice AZT decreased liver regeneration but stimulates oxidative events involved during the proliferation process in a way that each membrane system inside the cell preserves its integrity in order to maintain the cell proliferative process. Here, the induction of large amounts of free ammonia in the systemic circulation could become a factor capable of mediating the deleterious effects of AZT on PH-induced rat liver regeneration.