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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9172741, 11 pages
Research Article

4-Hydroxynonenal Contributes to Angiogenesis through a Redox-Dependent Sphingolipid Pathway: Prevention by Hydralazine Derivatives

1INSERM I2MC, UMR-1048, Toulouse, France
2Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III, Toulouse, France
3CNRS UMR 5068, Laboratoire de Synthèse et Physico-Chimie de Molécules d’Intérêt Biologique, Toulouse, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Anne Nègre-Salvayre

Received 5 January 2017; Accepted 1 March 2017; Published 5 April 2017

Academic Editor: Liudmila Korkina

Copyright © 2017 Caroline Camaré et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The neovascularization of atherosclerotic lesions is involved in plaque development and may contribute to intraplaque hemorrhage and plaque fragilization and rupture. Among the various proangiogenic agents involved in the neovascularization process, proatherogenic oxidized LDLs (oxLDLs) contribute to the formation of tubes via the generation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a major mitogenic and proangiogenic sphingolipid mediator. In this study, we investigated whether 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), an aldehydic lipid oxidation product abundantly present in oxLDLs, contributes to their proangiogenic properties. Immunofluorescence analysis of human atherosclerotic lesions from carotid endarterectomy showed the colocalization of HNE-adducts with CD31, a marker of endothelial cells, suggesting a close relationship between 4-HNE and neovessel formation. In vitro, low 4-HNE concentration (0.5–1 µM) elicited the formation of tubes by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), whereas higher concentrations were not angiogenic. The formation of tubes by 4-HNE involved the generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of the sphingolipid pathway, namely, the neutral type 2 sphingomyelinase and sphingosine kinase-1 (nSMase2/SK-1) pathway, indicating a role for S1P in the angiogenic signaling of 4-HNE. Carbonyl scavengers hydralazine and bisvanillyl-hydralazone inhibited the nSMase2/SK1 pathway activation and the formation of tubes on Matrigel® evoked by 4-HNE. Altogether, these results emphasize the role of 4-HNE in the angiogenic effect of oxLDLs and point out the potential interest of pharmacological carbonyl scavengers to prevent the neovascularization process.