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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018, Article ID 2568569, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2568569
Review Article

Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Targets

1Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
2Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi, Salerno, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Alessandro Federico; ti.ainapmacinu@ociredef.ordnassela

Received 22 December 2017; Accepted 14 March 2018; Published 12 April 2018

Academic Editor: Saeid Golbidi

Copyright © 2018 Antonietta Gerarda Gravina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory conditions involving primarily the gastrointestinal tract. However, they may be also associated with systemic manifestations and comorbidities. The relationship between chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction has been extensively demonstrated. Mucosal immunity and gastrointestinal physiology are modified in inflammatory bowel diseases, and these modifications are mainly sustained by alterations of endothelial function. The key elements involved in this process are cytokines, inflammatory cells, growth factors, nitric oxide, endothelial adhesion molecules, and coagulation cascade factors. In this review, we discuss available data in literature concerning endothelial dysfunction in patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease and we focus our attention on both pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic targets.