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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018, Article ID 3074769, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3074769
Review Article

Yeast Cells Exposed to Exogenous Palmitoleic Acid Either Adapt to Stress and Survive or Commit to Regulated Liponecrosis and Die

Concordia University, Department of Biology, Montreal, QC, Canada H4B 1R6

Correspondence should be addressed to Vladimir I. Titorenko; ac.aidrocnoc@oknerotit.rimidalv

Received 2 September 2017; Revised 27 November 2017; Accepted 20 December 2017; Published 31 January 2018

Academic Editor: Paula Ludovico

Copyright © 2018 Karamat Mohammad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A disturbed homeostasis of cellular lipids and the resulting lipotoxicity are considered to be key contributors to many human pathologies, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been successfully used for uncovering molecular mechanisms through which impaired lipid metabolism causes lipotoxicity and elicits different forms of regulated cell death. Here, we discuss mechanisms of the “liponecrotic” mode of regulated cell death in S. cerevisiae. This mode of regulated cell death can be initiated in response to a brief treatment of yeast with exogenous palmitoleic acid. Such treatment prompts the incorporation of exogenously added palmitoleic acid into phospholipids and neutral lipids. This orchestrates a global remodeling of lipid metabolism and transfer in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lipid droplets, and the plasma membrane. Certain features of such remodeling play essential roles either in committing yeast to liponecrosis or in executing this mode of regulated cell death. We also outline four processes through which yeast cells actively resist liponecrosis by adapting to the cellular stress imposed by palmitoleic acid and maintaining viability. These prosurvival cellular processes are confined in the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets, peroxisomes, autophagosomes, vacuoles, and the cytosol.