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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 5106469, 10 pages
Research Article

Rutin Isolated from Chrozophora tinctoria Enhances Bone Cell Proliferation and Ossification Markers

1Medicinal Plants Research Group, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
5Pharmacology Department, Medical Division, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
6Department of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
7Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence should be addressed to Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim

Received 12 October 2017; Revised 25 November 2017; Accepted 17 December 2017; Published 13 February 2018

Academic Editor: Lotfi Aleya

Copyright © 2018 Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Osteoporosis is a chronic disease in which the skeleton loses a weighty proportion of its mineralized mass and mechanical pliability. Currently available antiosteoporotic agents suffer adverse effects that include elevated risk of thrombosis and cancer. Phytochemicals may constitute a safer and effective option. In the current work, six flavonoids were obtained from Chrozophora tinctoria and identified as amentoflavone (1), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), apigenin-7-O-6-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), acacetin-7-O-β-D-[α-L-rhamnosyl(1→6)]3-E-p-coumaroyl glucopyranoside (4), apigenin-7-O-(6-Z-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), and rutin (6). An extensive review of the literature as well as NMR and mass spectral techniques was employed in order to elucidate the compound structures. Proliferation was enhanced in MCF7, MG-63, and SAOS-2 cells after exposure to subcytotoxic levels of the tested flavonoids. Rutin was chosen for subsequent studies in SAOS-2 cells. Rutin was not found to cause any alteration in the index of proliferation of these cells, when examining the cell cycle distribution by DNA flowcytometric analysis. Rutin was, however, found to increase osteocyte and osteoblast-related gene expression and lower the expression of RUNX suppressor and osteoclast genes. When examining the influence of rutin on vitamin D levels and the activity of alkaline phosphatase enzyme, it was found to enhance both, while decreasing acid phosphatase which is a marker of osteoporosis. Thus, rutin enhances proliferation and ossification markers in bone cells.