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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018, Article ID 7017423, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7017423
Research Article

Occupational Exposure to Pesticides in Tobacco Fields: The Integrated Evaluation of Nutritional Intake and Susceptibility on Genomic and Epigenetic Instability

1Laboratory of Toxicological Genetics, Post-Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology Applied to Health (PPGBioSaúde), Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Av. Farroupilha, 8001 Canoas, RS, Brazil
2Health and Biosecurity Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Gate 13 Kintore Avenue, Adelaide, SA, Australia
3Laboratory of Oxidative Stress, Post-Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology Applied to Health (PPGBioSaúde), Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Av. Farroupilha, 8001 Canoas, RS, Brazil
4Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology-Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2350 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
5Postgraduate Program in Biosystems, Foundation Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001 Santo André, SP, Brazil
6Postgraduate Program in Science and Technology/Chemistry, Foundation Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001 Santo André, SP, Brazil
7Laboratory of Genetic Epidemiology, Genetics Department, Medicine School, Universidad de la República, Gral. Flores, 2125 Montevideo, Uruguay
8Epigenetics and Genomic Instability Laboratory, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay
9Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, Post-Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology Applied to Health (PPGBioSaúde), Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Av. Farroupilha, 8001 Canoas, RS, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Vivian F. Silva Kahl; moc.liamg@lhak.naiviv and Juliana da Silva; rb.arblu@avlis.anailuj

Received 4 December 2017; Revised 14 March 2018; Accepted 4 April 2018; Published 3 June 2018

Academic Editor: Walid Rachidi

Copyright © 2018 Vivian F. Silva Kahl et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pesticides used at tobacco fields are associated with genomic instability, which is proposed to be sensitive to nutritional intake and may also induce epigenetic changes. We evaluated the effect of dietary intake and genetic susceptibility polymorphisms in MTHFR (rs1801133) and TERT (rs2736100) genes on genomic and epigenetic instability in tobacco farmers. Farmers, when compared to a nonexposed group, showed increased levels of different parameters of DNA damage (micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds), evaluated by cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Telomere length (TL) measured by quantitative PCR was shorter in exposed individuals. Global DNA methylation was significantly decreased in tobacco farmers. The exposed group had lower dietary intake of fiber, but an increase in cholesterol; vitamins such as B6, B12, and C; β-carotene; and α-retinol. Several trace and ultratrace elements were found higher in farmers than in nonfarmers. The MTHFR CT/TT genotype influenced nucleoplasmic bridges, nuclear buds, and TL in the exposed group, whereas TERT GT/TT only affected micronucleus frequency. We observed a positive correlation of TL and lipids and an inverse correlation of TL and fibers. The present data suggest an important role of dietary intake and subjects’ genetic susceptibility to xenobiotics-induced damages and epigenetic alterations in tobacco farmers occupationally exposed to mixtures of pesticides.