Alterations in Organismal Physiology, Impaired Stress Resistance, and Accelerated Aging in Drosophila Flies Adapted to Multigenerational Proteome Instability
Multigenerational developmentally nonlethal proteasome inhibition in Drosophila flies reduced fecundity and body size, caused neuromuscular defects, and accelerated aging. (a) Laid embryos (%) during a period of 24 h by young NT, NT-BTZ, G80, and G80-BTZ females. (b) Hatched flies (%) 14 days posttransferring thirty embryos per population to the respective culture medium. (c1) Images of female and male flies of the NT and G80-BTZ groups. (c2) Area (%) of right and left wings dissected from young female or male flies of the NT and G80-BTZ populations. (c3) Body weight (%) of middle-aged female or male flies collected from the NT and the G80-BTZ groups. (d) Locomotion (climbing) activity of young NT and G80-BTZ flies. (e) Longevity curves of female and male NT and G80-BTZ flies (e1) or of NT and G80 flies (e2); in (e2), equal numbers of female/male flies were used. Comparative statistics of the longevity assays are reported in Table S1. Bars, ±SD ().;.
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